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Full text of "Open space"

Open 
Space 



Selected 


National 


Grants 


Endowment 




for the Arts 




Design 




Arts 




Program 



Additional copies of this booklet 
or further information on these 
grants can be obtained from: 



Partners for Livable Places 
2120 P Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20037 
202/223-5867 

or 

Design Arts Program 

National Endowment for the Arts 

2401 E Street, NW 

Washington, DC 20506 

202/634-4276 



Open 
Space 



Selected National 

Grants Endowment 

for the Arts 

Design 
Arts 

Program 



Edited by 
Roberta Faul 



Published by Partners for Livable Places 
with support by the Design Arts Program, 
National Endowment for the Arts. 



Contents 



Introduction 4 

Enhancement of Open Space 

Waterfronts 7 

Historic districts and sites 12 

Highways, streets, alleys and row's 18 

Plazas, malls, squares and walkways 85 

Parks and recreation facilities 31 

Fountains, art, regreening, etc. 36 

Land-use Planning, Conservation and 

Preservation of Open Space 39 

Environmental Education and 

Awareness 48 

Research and Studies 53 

Index 57 



Introduction 



The National Endowment for the Arts, an independent 
agency of the federal government, was established in 
1965 to encourage and assist the nation's cultural 
resources. The Endowment's goals are to make the 
arts more widely available, to preserve the nation's 
cultural heritage, to strengthen its cultural organi- 
zations and to encourage its creative talents. 

Design Arts, one of the Endowment's twelve program 
areas, pursues these goals in the design fields through 
both grant making activities and special advocacy pro- 
jects.* In its fourteen-year history, (1966-1980), 
the program has made available more than $26 million 
for a broad range of activities in the design arts — 
planning and design projects in communities of all 
sizes; professional education and development for 
practitioners of the design arts; research on design 
issues; and "awareness" projects in schools and com- 
munities . 

In addition to grant making, the program conducts 
a Design Excellence Project in order to encourage both 
citizens and the government to recognize the role of 
good design in making our environment more beautiful, 
more efficient and less costly. 

In 1977 Design Arts published a ten-year report 
( By Design ) containing a history of its activities. 
An outgrowth of this report has been a series of 
smaller booklets on such topics as downtown revitali- 
zation, adaptive use and neighborhood conservation. 
The booklets constitute a series entitled "Selected 
Grants", each with a theme and descriptions of a sam- 
pling of people and projects assisted by the Design 
Arts Program, and are intended to suggest useful de- 
velopments and trends in the design field, and to pro- 
vide readers with sources for further information. 

"Open Space" is a sampling of grants dealing with 
landuse planning, conservation, recreation, natural 
environment, recreation and a wide variety of landscape 
open space design projects. The large number of grants 
in this area suggests strongly that government officials 
and citizens alike are becoming aware they can have 
excellence in their environment if they desire it and 
plan for it. 

Many of the grants listed here respond to the 
specific concerns of a particular community, state or 
region, for example: the development of design tech- 
niques to preserve Hawaii's natural beauty; a system 
of biking, canoeing and bridle trails linking important 
cultural landmarks in Western Maryland; landscape 
design for the town common of Colebrook, New Hampshire; 
temporary and permanent parks on New York City-owned 
vacant lots; and the "regreening" of streets in Hunt- 
ington, West Virginia. 



5 



What these grants demonstrate is a the range of 
imaginative and innovative approaches that are being 
used to protect and enrich valued areas; to enhance 
the visual and environmental aspects of public spaces 
in the built environment; and generally to improve the 
quality of life in the places where people live, work 
and play. It is our hope that "Open Space" and the 
other booklets in this series will provide you with 
the opportunity to learn from the experience of our 
grantees . 



Michael John Pittas 

Director 

Design Arts Program 



* The Design Arts Program, formerly titled Architecture, 
Planning & Design, represents the fields of architecture, 
landscape architecture, urban design and planning, interior 
design, industrial design, fashion and graphic design. 



6 



Enhancement of Open Space 7 

Waterfronts 

A study of the historic Vieux Carre waterfront in New 
Orleans identified immediate and long-range goals for 
the best utilization of the area for recreation, in- 
dustrial, commercial, and transportation needs, leading 
to design proposals for the area. 

Tulane University 

6823 St. Charles Avenue 

New Orleans, LA 70118 

Contact: William K. Turner, Dean, School of 

Architecture, 504/865-4011 
$30,000 / FY 1969 

The changes and manipulations of the Charles River edge 
of Boston were studied. A proposal for a new Harvard 
Bridge, modeled in concept after the Ponte Vecchio, was 
shown in model form (thriteen feet long), plans, and 
photographs. Though the bridge plans were not imple- 
mented, the study contributed to the dialogue among 
education, civic, and government groups in the Boston/ 
Cambridge area. 

Friedrich St. Florian 

Associate Professor of Architecture 

Rhode Island School of Design 

Providence, RI 02903 

$10,000 / FY 1972 

A study of the Rio Grande River as a major edge for 
Albuquerque--which might have important design impli- 
cations for other arid cities — was done under this 
grant. Plans were made to establish a nature preserve 
as a method of developing the river corridor for public 
benefit. 

City of Albuquerque 

Box 1293 

Albuquerque, NM 87103 

Contact: Vern C. Hagen, Planning Director, 505/766-7465 

$40,000 / FY 1973 

A study of the best use of the Mississippi River edge 
of New Orleans was made under this grant. A multi- 
disciplinary effort, the study inventoried existing 
structures and produced an economic, historical, land- 
use, and ownership analysis leading to a new master plan 
of the river edge. 

City of New Orleans 

Office of the Mayor 

City Hall 

1300 Perdido Street 

New Orleans, LA 70112 

Contact: Wayne Collier, Director, Vieux Carre Commission, 

630 Chartres Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, 504/581-3510 
$40,000 / FY 1973 



8 

A study of multiuse possibilities for a deteriorating 
waterfront in Portland, Maine, set up new public access 
to the waterfront, and established design controls over 
rehabilitation and new construction. 

City of Portland 

Planning Department 

City Hall 

Portland, ME 04111 

Contact: Paul A. Rollins, 207/775-5451 

$39,645 / FY 1973 

Reuse of piers in San Francisco for public use and en- 
joyment was studied. A physical, legal, and economic 
framework for redevelopment of Embarcadero Gardens was 
prepared with recommended implementation by a non- 
governmental, nonprofit entity. 

Sierra Club Foundation 

1500 Mills Tower 

220 Bush Street 

San Francisco, CA 94104 

Contact: Toby Rosenblatt, 415/362-4195 

$40,000 / FY 1973 

The shores and tributaries of a large lake in Austin, 
Texas, was studied to explore the potential of devel- 
oping the waterfront and the creeks and other tributary 
streams into a comprehensive open space network; as part 
of a guide for the future growth of the city. 

University of Texas 

Austin, TX 78712 

Contact: J. Sinclair Black, School of Architecture, 

512/471-1922 
$40,000 / FY 1973 

Reestablishment of Stolp Island as a focal point of 
Aurora, Illinois, involved redevelopment of many old 
brick buildings representing several periods and styles 
of architecture, replanning of the riverfront with 
esplanades, fountains, terraces, and boating facilities; 
bridges and mass transit access. Along with earlier 
plans to revitalize the city's downtown, this redevel- 
opment of the fifteen-acre island "provides a unique 
opportunity to create a 'sense of place' in an urban 
setting. " 

City of Aurora 

44 East Downer Place 

Aurora, IL 60504 

Contact: Edmond R. Browne, Jr., Administrative Assistant, 

Office of the Mayor, 312/892-8811 
$42,000 / FY 1974 

The redevelopment of three sections of the Chicago River 
was planned under this grant. The central segment — 
from Michigan Avenue to Lake Shore Drive--was planned 
to contain major new commercial, residential, and river- 
esplanade development. 

City of Chicago 

Department of Development and Planning 

Room 1000, City Hall 

Chicago, IL 60602 

Contact: Martin R. Murphy, Deputy Commissioner, 

312/744-4471 
$40,000 / FY 1974 



9 

Conversion of Lowell, Massachusetts' five and a half 
miles of canals — clearly its most unique feature--to 
educational, cultural, and recreational uses was planned. 
An overall basic design was created — with detailed designs 
for gatehouses, locks, and bridges; engineering feasibility 
studies; an environmental impact analysis; a cost analysis; 
and an action program. Local, state, and Federal funds 
became available for development. 

City of Lowell 

City Development Authority 

JFK Civic Center 

Lowell, MA 01852 

Contact: Frank T. Keefe, Harrington, Keefe and Schork, 

One Boston Place, Boston, MA Q2108, 617/367-2760 
$30,330 / FY 1974 

A comprehensive study of the Davenport waterfront — 
extending nine miles along the Mississippi — was 
planned. Present land uses include the central busi- 
ness district, commercial, industrial, residential, 
and open space; all in unplanned relationships. The 
study was undertaken just ahead of a proposal for flood 
control by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

Davenport Levee Improvement Commission 

City Hall 

Davenport, IA 525801 

Contact: Eugene 0. Johnson, Executive Secretary, 

319/326-7765 
$18,750 / FY 1974 

A development plan for the revitalization of the Great 
Falls Power and Raceway System in Paterson, New Jersey, 
was funded under this grant. 

Great Falls Development, Inc. 

176 Maple Street 

Paterson, NJ 07505 

Contact: Francis Blesso, Deputy Director, Department 

of City Development, 52 Church Street, Paterson, 

NJ 07505, 201/684-3000 
$11,410 / FY 1975 

Improvement of an urban beach by teams of young men 
was aided by this grant. The city of Catano near San 
Juan is densely populated, low-income, with a high con- 
centration of restless young. This project intended 
to show how teams of young people could improve the 
area. Funds were used for professional planning and 
supervision, salaries for twenty workers, materials, 
and rental of heavy equipment. 

Youth Action Administration 

Avenida Ponce de Leon 1250 

Santurce, PR 00908 

Contact: Oscar Davila Suliveres, Administrator, 

809/723-1163 
$25,000 / FY 1975 

Development of design guidelines for reuse of the vacant 
Boston Naval Shipyard. This National Landmark property, 
adjacent to the U.S.S. Constitution National Historic 
Site, was to be developed in keeping with the historic 
environment. 

Boston Redevelopment Authority 

City Hall, Room 911 

Boston, MA 02201 

Contact: Robert T. Kenney, Director, 617/722-4300 

$10,000 / FY 1976 



10 

A design study of the potential reuse of underutilized 
older buildings and vacant land on the Burlington 
waterfront was assisted by this grant. 

City of Burlington 

Planning Commission 

P.O. Box 941 

Burlington, VT 05401 

Contact: William N. Aswad, Chairman, 802/862-5711 

$20,000 / FY 1976 

A study of design details for a waterfront greenbelt 
linking a public beach, a vocational school, several 
historic sites, and a proposed marina was funded. The 
proposed walkway was to key upon a number of traditional 
but overlooked factors in the history and physical 
environment of the City of South Portland, Maine. 

City of South Portland 

City Hall 

25 Cottage Road 

South Portland, ME 04106 

$12,500 / FY 1976 

A study of Tacoma ' s public urban shoreline areas was 
funded to provide public amenities to assist in 
rejuvenation of the Ruston Way area with a sensitivity 
to scale, comfort, and design. 

City of Tacoma 

930 Tacoma Avenue 

Room 335 

Tacoma, WA 98402 

Contact: Russell C. Buehler, Director of Planning, 

206/593-4170 
$32,500 / FY 1976 

A study of the visual image of beaches in the Los Angeles 
area—in terms of visual forms, building types, land use 
matters, and circulation — was funded. Development of 
a catalog on the range and rationale of potential 
development patterns and images for the beaches was 
also planned. 

Ronald C. Filson 
8330 17th Street 
Santa Monica, CA 90403 
$7,000 / FY 1976 

A master plan for redevelopment of the Village lakefront 
and bay was prepared in order to preserve natural scenic 
values, strengthen ecological functions, enhance its 
"small character" and provide for the needs of residents 
and tourists. 

Village of Williams Bay 

Village of Williams Bay, WI 53191 

Contact: Thomas A. Lothian, Trustee and Chairman, 

Finance and Ordinance Committee, 312/996-5400 
$4,000 / FY 1977 



11 



Plans for revitalization of Eastport, Maine's historic 
downtown/waterfront were formulated. Project was to 
include analysis of waterfront systems and buildings; 
planning and design studies; and development of a 
masterplan and an action plan for funding and imple- 
mentation. 

City of Eastport 

City Rooms 

Eastport, ME 04631 

Contact: Bruce Tsuchida, Townscape Associates, 

617/646-2264 
$10,000 / FY 1978 

A graphics and interpretive information system for 
Denver's Platte River Greenway was designed. Signage 
was to direct users to facilities and recreational and 
study areas and provide interpretive information on 
the river's history and ecology. 

South Platte River Greenway Foundation, Inc. 

1421 Court Plaza 

Denver, CO 80202 

Contact: Robert M. Searns, Project Director, 303/ 

575-3268 
$1,350 / FY 1978 



Historic districts and sites 



An advanced strategy to guide the evolution of historic 
Santa Fe included an inventory of historic structural 
elements including its irrigation ditches, river, 
plazas, street patterns, and blockforms. A three- 
dimensional model was generated to provide a framework 
for local owners to carry out building schemes consistent 
with new guidelines. 

City of Santa Fe 

Planning Department 

P.O. Box 909 

Santa Fe, NM 87501 

Contact: Harry Moul, City Planner, 505/982-4471 

$21,492 / FY 1974 

Replanning of Orleans Street in the Vieux Carre as a 
pedestrian mall involved a detailed study of the history 
of the street as well as a detailed design. The four- 
block-long avenue connects the historic St. Louis 
Cathedral-Jackson Square Complex with the New Orleans 
Cultural Center, and would become a landscaped, pedes- 
trian oriented passage. 

Jack R. Cosner 
1029 Orleans Street 
New Orleans, LA 70116 
$10,000 / FY 1974 

Expansion of preservation efforts in Galveston — begun 
with an ongoing program of reuse of 19th-century buildings 
along the Strand — was aided. Emphasis under this grant 
was to extend this effort to other key areas of the city, 
such as the adjacent sharf area, with studies of visual 
ties, pedestrian access, public transportation, traffic, 
parking, and public spaces. 

Galveston Historical Foundation, Inc. 

P.O. Box 302 

Galveston, TX 77550 

Contact: Peter H. Brink, Executive Director, 713/765-7834 

$42,000 / FY 1974 

A plan to adapt a major campus plan to Denver's historic 
district was jointly administered by a private preser- 
vation agency and the state agency. The campus plan was 
revised to provide a link between the modern city and 
the historic Cherry Creek area which includes a variety 
of buildings on the National Register; with emphasis on 
appropriate landscape design and adaptive use of numerous 
buildings . 

Historic Denver, Inc. 

1059 Ninth Street 

Denver, CO 80205 

Contact: Jacques C. Brownson, Director, Planning and 
Development, Auraria Higher Education Center, 820 
16th Street, Denver, CO 80202, 303/892-3337 

$50,000 / FY 1974 



13 

To preserve the rural Waterford National Landmark 
Historic District near Washington, D.C. — "so that 
future generations. . .may have available a vivid and 
picturesque example of American countryside"--the 
grantee used professional planning help in making a 
long-range plan and establishing its implementation. 
The area involved was 12 30 acres in and surrounding 
Waterford, Virginia, and a 925-acre corridor on the 
road to the south — all almost entirely devoid of sub- 
division development. 

The Waterford Foundation 
Waterford, VA 22190 

Contact: Mary Mercker, 703/882-3336 
$10,000 / FY 1974 

Reclamation of the amenities of historic streets in 
Annapolis, Maryland, was planned, including removal 
of some of the modern macadam surfacing to restore 
the original cobble, brick, or Belgian block paving, 
and design and installation of street furniture, 
lighting standards, and other details appropriate to 
the historic area. 

Historic Annapolis, Inc. 

18 Pinkney Street 

Annapolis, MD 21401 

Contact: Richard Kearns, 301/267-7619 

$9,566 / FY 1975 

The unearthing and cleaning of eighty- to ninety-year- 
old brick sidewalks (with future maintenance guaranteed) 
was intended as part of the restoration of this Spoon 
River community, emphasizing the period 1890 to 1910. 

Village of London Mills 

Village of London Mills, IL 61544 

Contact: Robert C. Boden, President, Board of Trustees, 

309/486-3315 
$900 / FY 1975 

To improve coherence of the visual setting in a historic 
180-block area of Wilmington, North Carolina, grantee 
formulated design recommendations; specific programs 
and plans for demonstration projects; and a manual for 
streetscape, surface treatment, vehicular and pedestrian 
requirements . 

City of Wilmington 

Planning Commission 

P.O. Drawer 1810 

Wilmington, NC 28401 

Contact: Richard A. Fender, Director of Planning, 

Wilmington-New Hanover Planning Department, 919/762-8734 
$17,300 / FY 1977 



14 

Plans and designs for open spaces in the 21-block York 
Historical and Architectural Review District were pre- 
pared under this grant given for environmental design 
services. Pedestrian-oriented amenities for the area— 
which includes half of the central business district — 
included signage, street furniture, paving, and plantings. 

City of York 

50 West King Street 

Box 509 

York, PA 17405 

Contact: Elizabeth Marshall, Mayor, 717/543-8841 

$12,100 / FY 1977 

Efforts to conserve the civic heritage of seaport towns 
in New England and the Mid-Atlantic region were supported. 
Grnatee proposed to survey conservation activities in 
100-200 towns, identify major issues, and assess the 
feasibility of establishing a Civic Trust-like network 
linking the towns. 

The Conservation Foundation 

1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW 

Washington, DC 20036 

Contact: John Clark, Coastal Zone Management Program, 

202/797-4360 
$15,000 / FY 1977 

Design planning studies of streetscape improvements were 
made to aid in the rehabilitation of historic buildings 
along Harrison Avenue in Leadville, Colorado. 

City of Leadville 

City Hall 

Leadville, CO 80461 

Contact: Gage Davis and Associates, Boulder, CO 80302 

$20,000 / FY 1978 

Design work on Lowell, Massachusetts' existing hydro- 
power systems was undertaken as part of a larger effort 
to preserve the city's unique and historic energy 
resources and adapt them for contemporary needs. 

City of Lowell 

City Hall 

Lowell, MA 01852 

Contact: Cathie Meehan, Assistant Planner, 617/459-6138 

$25,000 / FY 1978 

A master preservation plan for the Oysterville Historic 
District was formulated as guidance for future develop- 
ment of land parcels in and near the district. Guide- 
lines for new construction also were to be included in 
the plan. 

Oysterville Restoration Foundation 

Box 98 

Oysterville, WA 98641 

Contact: Michael Parker, Landscape Architect/Planner, 

503/228-6073 
$4,500 / FY 1978 



Highways, streets, alleys and row's 15 

Films showing patterns of use of streets and urban space 
were made. Films were intended to document research 
based on direct observation supplemented by time-lapse 
and regular cinematography. The goals were to discern 
patterns of use or nonuse valuable to planners, architects, 
and others concerned with cities; and to develop a rel- 
atively simple research methodology for uncovering such 
patterns. 

National Recreation and Park Association 

1601 N. Kent Street 

Arlington, VA 22209 

Contact: William H. Why te , The Street Life Project, 

131 East 61st Street, New York, NY 10021. 
$15,000 / FY 1972 

Alternate plans for the reuse of 260 acres of incity 
railroad yard property in Reading, Pennsylvania, were 
developed under this grant. 

City of Reading 

Bureau of Planning 

City Hall 

Reading, PA 19601 

Contact: Robert E. Bartmann, Planning Director, 

215/373-5111 
$21,045 / FY 1973 

New linkages between a blighted downtown and a vigorous 
adjacent campus in Youngstown were planned. The cleared 
renewal area is separated from the expanding campus by 
a sixty-foot vertical change and by a railroad right of 
way. The project involved developing physical, visual, 
and symbolic linkages — to "encourage communication, 
breakdown age stratification, and preserve and make 
better use of the physical structure of downtown. " 

William A. Brenner 
2245 Cordova Avenue 
Youngstown, OH 44504 
$5,000 / FY 1974 

Definition of Baltimore's city edge through lighting 
and landscaping was studied under this grant. The 
goal was to treat the city's edges and its entrances 
as an urban information system, including international 
signage, control of private signs, entrances, and land 
uses; creation of a prototype area for underground utility 
wires; and development of architecturally designed bill- 
boards. 

City of Baltimore 

Department of Planning 

222 East Saratoga Street 

Baltimore, MD 21201 

Contact: Alan F. Deanehan, Chief, 301/396-4307 

$40,000 / FY 1974 



16 

A three-phase program to renew and build awareness 
in Bloomington, Indiana, involved 1) preservation of 
historic buildings and spaces, 2) a replanting program 
"to recreate the tree-lined streets of the past," and 
3) development of a graphic information system to "dis- 
seminate information on the community's history, land- 
marks, and facilities." 

City of Bloomington 

P.O. Box 100 

Municipal Building 

Bloomington, IN 47401 

Contact: W. T. Crossman, Planning Director, Planning 

Department, 812/339-2261 
$7,500 / FY 1974 

A plan to reinforce and enliven the central business 
district of Morganfield, Kentucky, included a new link 
connecting the Morgan's Spring historical site and the 
County Courthouse with public plazas, landscaping, new 
signage, pedestrian mall sculpture, and shopper rest 
areas. The goal was to avoid the typical exodus of 
commercial activities to peripheral centers. 

City of Morganfield 

118 East Main Street 

Morganfield, KY 42437 

Contact: Byron F. Heffington, City Administrator, 

502/389-2525 
$3,000 / FY 1974 

A design study to improve the highway corridors into 
Philadelphia was made. The Schuykill Expressway was 
chosen because of its prototypical nature, the pos- 
sibilities of early implementation, and the willing- 
ness of business along the route to participate and 
respond to the study. 

City of Philadelphia 

1620 Municipal Services Building 

Philadelphia, PA 19107 

Contact: Hillel S. Levinson, Managing Director, 

215/686-3481 
$50,000 / FY 1974 

Creation of vital neighborhood centers around the new 
Metro stations in Washington, DC, was studied. The 
project built on the large-scale development planning 
already underway for the forty Metro areas, but focused 
on obtaining sculpture, plantings, and special pavings, 
and obtaining desired building arrangements. The goal 
was "to renew pride and special character in the various 
neighborhoods . " 

District of Columbia Bicentennial Commission 

Office of Planning and Management 

Room 409, District Building 

Washington, DC 20004 

Contact: J. Kirkwood White, Office of Planning and 

Management, 1329 E Street, NW, Washington, DC 20004, 

202/629-2686 
$50,000 / FY 1974 



17 

Planning for cultural activities on Washington's 
"Streets for People" — blocks set aside for pedestrian 
use in front of the Martin Luther King Memorial Library, 
the National Collcetion of Fine Arts, and the National 
Portrait Gallery — were planned under this grant as "a 
new local focus for the public arts and life of the 
District. " 

District of Columbia Public Library 

901 G Street, NW 

Washington, DC 20001 

Contact: Henry E. Battes, Acting Director, 202/727-1101 

$42,700 / FY 1974 

A proposal to separate the streets of central Washington, 
DC, into two systems — a "private system" of grid streets 
assigned to pedestrians, trucks, and autos; and a "public 
system" of boulevards intersecting squares and circles 
assigned to pedestrians, buses, and bicycles — was in- 
tended "to return L' Enfant 's boulevards, circles, and 
squares to their original function of public open space." 

District of Columbia 

Office of Planning and Management 

Room 409, District Building 

Washington, DC 20004 

Contact: Joseph Passonneau, 3015 Q Street, NW, Washington, 

DC 20007, 202/965-2679 
$50,000 / FY 1974 

A proposal to link "the loose pieces of the typical 'strip' 
into a new kind of classic Main Street" was developed; 
steering away from driving toward a more "self-propelled 
pedestrian attitude." The grantee's premise was that the 
strip was "an infrastructure from which can be created 
an exciting kind of outdoor living space, not by cleaning 
it up but by reorganizing it with new street furniture, 
playgrounds, plazas, graphics, and the like." North Main 
Street in Providence, Rhode Island, was the example used. 

Michael A. Kreski 
265 11th Street, NW 
Atlanta, GA 30309 
$2,000 / FY 1974 

An open-sky "amphi-plaza" at the end of La Jolla's main 
shopping avenue, as a component of the amended La Jolla 
Master Plan, was studied. At the most densely-visited 
area of the village, the plaza was planned as a wide and 
comfortable pedestrian place with the last public, in- 
town view of the sea and waves. 

Judith Munk 

9530 La Jolla Shores Drive 
La Jolla, CA 92037 
$10,000 / FY 1974 

New uses of land under elevated highways were studied. 
Three parcels of such land in Providence — a series of 
small islands under the supports of Interstate 95; and 
two sites within an industrial complex adjacent to the 
central business district--were planned as case examples. 
The goal was to develop outdoor spaces "enjoyable and 
stimulating to be in and to use" — utilizing landscaping, 
art objects, and street furniture. 

Gloria Root 

P.O. Box 956 

Rhode Island School of Design 

Providence, RI 02903 

$10,000 / FY 1974 



18 

An effort to preserve ethnic and symbolic values during 
urban "improvement" efforts focused on Lower Sacramento 
Street in Berkeley, a black Model City area. Design 
options were developed to utilize land reclaimed from an 
abandoned railroad strip, to preserve the character of 
the existing commercial and social strip, and enhance 
rather than remove the ethnic identity of the area. 

Paul T. F. Wang 
1830 Arch Street 
Berkeley, CA 94709 
$7,300 / FY 1974 

The planning/design study for Ann Arbor's Liberty Street 
Corridor, facilitated by this grant, was to place spe- 
cial emphasis on the impact of a newly constructed 
Federal building. Combining adaptive-use designs with 
financial incentives, the study was to attempt to in- 
crease commitment by public officials to the conser- 
vation of remaining 19th-century streetscape elements 
on a route linking the central business district, the 
University campus, and adjacent residential neighborhoods 

Ann Arbor Tomorrow 

115 1/2 East Liberty Street 

Ann Arbor, MI 48108 

Contact: Guy C. Larcom, Jr., Executive Director, 

313/665-4433 
$10,000 / FY 1978 

Preparation and dissemination of the book Streetscape 
Equipment Sourcebook was funded. An expansion of an 
earlier prototype edition, this publication was to be 
a "compendium of products selected for superior visual 
design, performance, and safety" similar to the British 
Design Index for Street Furniture. 

Center for Design Planning 

3695 St. Gaudens Road 

Coconut Grove, FL 33133 

Contact: Harold Lewis Malt, Director, 305/448-8422 

$42,960 / FY 1976 

A streetscape redesign project connecting Old Town 
Albuquerque to the newly rebuilt downtown was funded. 
The proposed Lomas Boulevard project was to "serve as 
a demonstration for landscaping and pedestrian improve- 
ments planned as part of the city's general effort to 
humanize urban centers and the street environment." 

City of Albuquerque 

P.O. Box 1293 

Albuquerque, NM 87103 

Contact: Frank A. Kleinhenz, Chief Administrative 

Officer, 505/766-7550 
$30,000 / FY 1976 



19 



A master design for the Italian-American village section 
of Jersey City was to be prepared in hopes of reviving 
a sense of .ethnic character in this neighborhood. The 
project, to be carried out in concert with VITA (Village 
Italian-Americans Take Action) , was to include design 
schemes for murals and building facades, plantings, 
street signs and furniture, and sites for street activ- 
ities, all to give the neighborhood a greater sense of 
identity. A directory/map of the area was to be pub- 
lished for residents and visitors. 

City of Jersey City 

Department of Human Resources 

City Hall 

Jersey City, NJ 07302 

Contact: Anthony Nicodemo, Executive Director, VITA, 

462 Second Street, Jersey City, NJ 07302, 201/795-0638 
$6,530 / FY 1976 

The redesign and adaptive reuse of alleys in three 
Louisville residential and commercial neighborhoods 
was the focus of this grant. 

City of Louisville 

Community Development Cabinet 

7 30 West Market Street 

Louisville, KY 40203 

Contact: William B. Gatewood, Director, 502/587-3081 

$47,000 / FY 1976 

Development of a comprehensive design plan for an area 
in New Orleans, Louisiana, was funded. Included in the 
plan for the Lower Garden District were to be strategies 
for land use, housing, plantings, lighting, signs, trans- 
porations and traffic patterns, recreational facilities, 
and economic composition of both residential and com- 
mercial areas within the district. 

City of New Orleans 

Historic District Landmarks Commission 

1300 Perdido Street 

Room 9W 

New Orleans, LA 70112 

Contact: Saundra K. Levy, Director, 504/586-4751 

$10,000 / FY 1976 

The rehabilitation plan for Congress Park in Saratoga 
Springs, New York, supported by this grant included 
historical research, a survey of user needs, and sche- 
matic designs for site amenities. Plans for circulation, 
landscaping, maintenance, and signage were also to be 
prepared along with a strategy for phased implementation. 

City of Saratoga Springs 

City Hall 

Saratoga Srings, NY 12866 

Contact: Dominic J. Cardillo, Deputy Director, Office 

of Community Development, 518/587-0667 
$10,000 / FY 1976 



80 

Approaches for public and private action related to 
streetscape design were supported. These approaches 
were to be developed in conjunction with neighborhoods 
around Washington, DCs, Metro subway stations and with 
improved transportation patterns. 

District of Columbia 

Municipal Planning Office 

District Building 

14th & E Streets, NW 

Washington, DC 20004 

Contact: Ben W. Gilbert, Director, 202/6-29-5111 

$50,000 / FY 1976 

A revitalization plan for the Hanover Square District 
in Syracuse, New York, was the focus of this grant. 
The study was to examine the structural ard economic 
feasibility of adapting the area's older commercial 
structures to new uses, and was also to consider 
options for signage, facade treatment, and open space 
planning. 

Society for the Advancement of the Visual Environment 

678 West Onondaga Street 

Syracuse, NY 13204 

Contact: Dennis J. Connors, Executive Director, 

Landmards Association of Central New York, 

315/475-4785 
$6,220 / FY 1976 

Landscape design for the Town Common, Main Street, and 
six historical monuments in Chester, New Hampshire, was 
assisted by this grant. Funds were to pay for contrac- 
tual services provided by a professional landscape 
architect. 

Town of Chester 

Town of Chester, NH 03036 

Contact: Paul Traver, Chairman, Chester Historic 

District Commission, 603/887-4745 
$500 / FY 1976 

An environmental analysis of potential uses for the 
Penn Central Railroad Yards in the South Bronx was 
funded. This project was to combine professional 
resources and community participation to prevent the 
planned redevelopment of the land into an industrial 
park . 

Wave Hill, Inc. 

Center for Environmental Studies 

675 West 252nd Street 

Bronx, NY 10471 

Contact: Betty Greenfield, 212/549-2055 

$20,000 / FY 1976 



21 



Development of design studies for the rehabilitation 
of a deteriorating, 14-block residential neighborhood 
in Worcester, Massachusetts, was funded. The project 
was also to involve the development of neighborhood 
open space and the treatment of neighborhood commercial 
structures. 

Worcester Cooperative Council, Inc. 

791 Main Street 

Worcester, MA 01610 

Contact: Christie J. Baxter, 617/791-3259 

$25,000 / FY 1976 

Design of improvements to Narrow Gauge Avenue — a nine- 
block segment of Durango, Colorado's historic rail- 
road route which passes through the downtown — was to 
be completed under this grant. A slide presentation, 
illustrated report and detailed design plan were to be 
produced and the project was expected to set a precedent 
for quality design throughout the downtown area. 

Animas Regional Planning Commission 

1911 North Main Street 

Durango, CO 81301 

Contact: Lynn T. Vandergrift, Regional Planner, 

303/259-1440 
$3,145 / FY 1977 

A physical design plan to improve the visual con- 
nection of major center city institutions and sites in 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, was funded. Grantee 
focused on design of surface elements — pedestrian links, 
open spaces, street furniture and lighting — to unify and 
provide continuity for the area. 

City-County Planning Board of Forsyth County and 

Winston-Salem 
City Hall 

Winston-Salem, NC 27102 

Contact: Jack A. Donnelly, Director, 919/727-2087 
$24,190 / FY 1977 

Designs and models for "Tour Duluth" — a citywide graphics 
system to identify historic and natural features, public 
sites and buildings — were prepared. It was anticipated 
that a unified graphics system would strengthen the 
city's image and be integrated into the downtown re- 
development plan. 

City of Duluth 

Department of Planning and Development 

409 City Hall 

Duluth, MN 55802 

Contact: Richard C. Loraas, Director, Department of 

Planning and Development, 218/727-4522 
$22,440 / FY 1977 



22 

A design and implementation plan to improve downtown 
Pasadena, California, was funded. A major focus of 
the project was integration of the city's major 
elements through environmental amenities — street 
lighting, signs, plantings, street furniture and the 
like. 

City of Pasadena 

City Hall 

Pasadena, CA 91109 

Contact: Donald Pollard, Assistant City Manager, 

213/577-4444 
$50,000 / FY 1977 

A study addressing the physical and socio-economic 
impact of adaptive use of the P & LE Railroad complex 
on the surrounding neighborhoods was supported. Study 
was to emphasize the development of design solutions 
and cost estimates. 

Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation 

One Post Office Museum 

One Landmark Square 

Pittsburgh, PA 15212 

Contact: Arthur P. Ziegler, Jr., President, 

412/322-1204 
$9,800 / FY 1977 

Preliminary design plans for an abandoned, 200-acre 
right of way — from a once proposed freeway — were 
formulated. The redevelopment concept was to revital- 
ize the 10 surrounding neighborhoods in Atlanta and 
East DeKalb County through reuse of the right of way 
land as a "Great Park" integrated with new mixed uses 
(commercial, residential, and industrial). 

Atlanta Great Park Planning, Inc. 

612 Clifton Road, NE 

Atlanta, GA 30307 

Contact: Quinn Hudson, President, 404/373-9630 

$10,000 / FY 1978 

An open space master plan for alleyways in San Francisco's 
Chinatown was formulated to address the critical need for 
public spaces in this densely populated area. Grantee 
also developed alternative designs and cost estimates 
for several pilot projects. 

Chinatown Neighborhood Improvement Resource Center 

1441 Powell Street 

San Francisco, CA 94133 

Contact: Jennie Lew, Planner/Designer, 415/391-4133 

$15,000 / FY 1978 



83 



Reuse of a row of 18th- and 19th-century structures 
and the general vicinity of Wilmington's historic train 
station was investigated, and a design plan was to be 
produced under this grant. Aim of the project was to 
create a complementary environment for the station, 
which was undergoing $15 million in renovations by the 
Federal Railroad Administration. Possible reuse ac- 
tivities for the mainly vacant structures included a 
visitor's center, transportation administration facil- 
ities, and related commercial services. 

City of Wilmington 

Wilmington, DE 19801 

Contact: Elliott Golinkoff, Director, Division of 

Planning, 302/571-4147 
$15,000 / FY 1978 

Improvements to neighborhood shopping areas in Yonkers, 
New York, were planned, with the goal of maintaining 
each area's distinctive character. A design team 
worked with neighborhood revitalization committees — 
composed of retailers, building owners, shoppers, and 
banks — in developing design plans and strategies, in- 
cluding facade improvements, signage, tree plantings, 
and standards for maintenance. 

City of Yonkers 

City Hall 

Yonkers, NY 10701 

Contact: Walter Brown, Project Manager/Design, 

914/963-3980 
$15,000 / FY 1978 

Phase one of "Rails to Trails "--to inventory existing 
abandoned railroad rights-of-way and determine those 
most suitable for recreational and open space uses — 
was assisted. Grantee intended to establish an ac- 
quisition program in phase two and develop a demon- 
stration project. 

New Jersey Conservation Foundation 

300 Mendham Road 

Morristown, NJ 07960 

Contact: Daryl F. Caputo, Assistant Director, 

201/539-7540 
$18,630 / FY 1978 

A block improvement program for West 46th Street in 
Manhattan was designed by the Project for Public Spaces. 
Plans were based on evaluation of pedestrian and ve- 
hicular traffic, uses of retail frontage, and user need 
for orientation mechanisms. Strong community involve- 
ment in the planning process was to be a key aspect of 
the project. 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

875 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, NY 10001 

Contact: Maristella Jelencovich Kelsey, Vice President, 

West 46th Street Blcok Association, 212/765-3207 
$5,000 / FY 1978 



24 

Design plans for a proposed Interstate Highway in 
Little Rock, Arkansas, were evaluated and recom- 
mendations were made to reduce the impact of 1-630 
on historic neighborhoods, cultural resources, parks, 
and the general character of areas affected by the 
highway development. Grantee anticipated that the 
project would be a model for highway design in 
historic areas. 

State of Arkansas 

State Capitol 

Little Rock, AR 72201 

Contact: Anne Bartley, National Governors Conference, 

444 North Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001, 

202/466-8960 
$30,000 / FY 1978 

Design proposals for a 145-acre cleared site — once in- 
tended as a freeway in the heart of Milwaukee ' s urban 
neighborhoods — were developed and evaluated for the 
Park West Redevelopment Task Force. The goal: to 
integrate new development and open spaces within the 
existing urban context. 

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 

P.O. Box 413 

Milwaukee, WI 53201 

Contact: Larry Witzling, Urban Design Consultant, 

414/562-3000 
$25,000 / FY 1978 



Plazas, malls, squares and walkways ss 

A study of downtown pedestrian shopping malls was 
completed under this grant. A booklet, "The Downtown 
Pedestrian Shopping Mall," 162 pages, examined the 
history and possible future of the mall; and described 
its uses, advantages, and limitations. 

James R. Cothran 
59 15th Street, Apt. 3-A 
Atlanta, GA 30309 
$2,000 / FY 1970 

The development of a "Festive Plaza" in East Harlem 
was advanced under this grant. The first phase of the 
project was the development of a handbook describing 
the project; this second phase involved the use of the 
handbook in soliciting construction funds and sponsors 
for the Plaza. 

James H. Tyner 

c/o Warner, Burns, Toan, Lunde Architects 

724 Fifth Avenue 

New York, NY 10019 

$7,100 / FY 1971 

A comprehensive urban design plan for Gainesville, 
Georgia, included a pedestrian linkage between down- 
town, the Lake Lanier waterfront, and the Brenau College 
campus. Special emphasis was placed on the rich cultural 
heritage of Green Street and extension of the open space 
of Ivy Terrace Park to the waterfront. 

City of Gainesville 

City Hall 

Gainesville, GA 30501 

Contact: J. Carlyle Cox, Director, Gainesville Model 

Cities, Gainesville, GA 30501, 404/532-4081 
$19,000 / FY 1974 

A mall competition plan for Titusville, Pennsylvania — 
intended to improve a Victorian central business district 
and discourage peripheral malls or shopping plazas — was 
funded. This project was part of a broad program in- 
tended as Titusville 's Bicentennial Community Program. 

Dale R. Fox 

521 North Perry Street 
Titusville, PA 16354 
$6,000 / FY 1974 

Development of a "City Place" in Austin — an outdoor 
space "where all can feel the uniqueness of the city, 
with a sense of the past and future" — was proposed. 
The grant funded redevelopment of a street with its 
adjacent structures and graphics in an effort to pro- 
vide a center for coordination of all renewal efforts 
in the downtown area. Analysis was made of the physical 
aspects and also the economic feasibility and financial 
program. The site chosen in Austin was Congress Avenue, 
the old main street leading from the Colorado River to 
the State Capitol. 

John Andrew Gallery 
1406 Hardouin Avenue 
Austin, TX 76703 
$10,000 / FY 1974 



26 

A study to generate concern for improvement of walking 
conditions in the city examined typical impediments to 
pedestrian movement using examples found in central 
Washington, DC, and recommended improvements in design 
and provision of amenities for walking — at sidewalks 
and street crossings, interchanges with other modes of 
transportation, at the national monuments, and in urban 
commercial and residential areas. A booklet for dis- 
tribution to professionals and city officials was pre- 
pared, illustrated with photographs, sketches, and 
diagrams . 

Lois G. Jackson 
241 Tenth Street, SE 
Washington, DC 20003 
$5,000 / FY 1974 

A pedestrian way linking community facilities in a low- 
income neighborhood was planned. Facilities along the 
linkage system included a day care center, a health care 
center, two community schools, a cultural arts center, 
a community center, a senior citizens center, and three 
neighborhood parks. Pedestrians and bicyclists would 
use greenways or paved pathways to reach these facilities 
without crossing major arteries in the high-density area. 

Metropolitan Dade County 

Dade County Courthouse 

Room 911 

73 West Flagler Street 

Miami, FL 33130 

Contact: Horace W. Morris, 5959 Northwest 35th Avenue, 

Miami, FL 33142, 305/634-3561 
$15,000 / FY 1974 

A proposal to create 350 auto-free acres in the center 
of Providence was developed, "to create a pedestrian 
district unlike that found in any other city... in its 
human scale and comprehensibility . " An alternate system 
for coordinated transportation access to the central 
business district was developed. This project was part 
of a broader interdisciplinary study for revitalization 
of Providence center city. 

Rhode Island School of Design 

2 College Street 

Providence, RI 02903 

Contact: Gerald Howes, Associate Professor, Division 

of Architectural Studies, 401/331-9488 
$50,000 / FY 1974 

An analysis of recycling streets to non-vehicular use 
in Honolulu and Berkeley categorized streets as "channel 
connectors," or "separators," or "reuse potential" for 
bazaars, festivals, parks, housing sites, or bicycling. 

Jack T. Sidener 
Department of Architecture 
University of Washington 
Seattle, WA 98105 
$9,500 / FY 1974 



87 



Production of two books on pedestrian use of cities 
was aided. The Rediscovery of the Pedestrian is a 
comparative analysis of selected American and European 
case studies; and handbook for Pedestrian Action is a 
citizen guidebook directed to community planning boards, 
block associations, and concerned citizens. 

Institute for Environmental Action, Inc. 

81 Leonard Street 

New York, NY 10013 

Contact: Robert Brambilla, Director, 212/966-6390 

$10,000 and $23,000 / FY 1975 and 1976 

Prototypical designs and guidelines on elements of an 
urban pedestrian system — sightlines, vistas, pedestrian 
lighting, waste disposal, telephones, shade, seating, 
graphics, wind and noise buffering — were funded. 

George H. Beggs 
305 Riverside Drive 
New York, NY 10025 
$8,610 / FY 1976 

Development of a final design concept for an urban 
pedestrian mall in Burlington, Verment, was funded. 

City of Burlington 

City Hall 

Burlington, VT 05401 

Contact: Patrick S. Robins, Chairman, Church Street 

Mall Steering Committee, 802/658-4444 
$50,000 / FY 1978 

Development of pedestrian spaces in the Capitol Square 
area of Columbus was funded. 

City of Columbus 

Department of Development 

50 West Broad Street 

Lincoln-Leveque Tower, Suite 401 

Columbus, OH 43215 

Contact: N. Jack Huddle, Director, 614/461-5763 

$25,000 / FY 1976 

Support for the overall urban design of a downtown mall — 
framed by its old and new courthouses, a proposed cul- 
tural/civic facility, and shopping/commercial complex — 
was given to the City of Decatur, Georgia. This mall 
was planned to become the focal point of the city 
through its proximity to a rapid transit station. 

City of Decatur 

City Manager's Office 

P.O. Box 220 

Decatur, GA 30031 

Contact: G. Curtis Branscome, City Manager, 404/377-9911 

$12,500 / FY 1976 



88 

Further development of detailed pedestrian plan for El 
Zocalo looking towards implementation of the entire 
concept was supported by this grant. This project is 
the continuation of an earlier grant for the development 
of the El Zocalo town center plan for this area of Los 
Angeles . 

The East Los Angeles Community Union 

1330 South Atlantic Boulevard 

Los Angeles, CA 90022 

Contact: Xavier Mendoza, Director of Planning, 

213/724-0276 
$38,610 / FY 1976 



The design of open spaces and pedestrian walks in Cole- 
brook, New Hampshire, was funded. The aim of the pro- 
ject was to be toward "upgrading the esthetic quality 
of the downtown area through the use of architectural 
landscaping techniques and signage." 

Town of Colebrook 

Selectmen's Office 

Colebrook NH 03576 

Contact: Frederick W. Kink, Selectman, 603/237-4070 

$5,000 / FY 1976 

Designs for a central city pedestrian system linking 
activity centers in downtown Memphis and its surrounding 
residential neighborhoods were prepared. Froject was 
to include the design of small elements — street lighting, 
landscaping, signs and pedestrian-scale street furni- 
ture--that would enhance the visual character and com- 
fort of the central city area. 

City of Memphis 

City Beautiful Commission 

Memphis, TN 38103 

Contact: John Dudas, Office of Policy Planning 

$25,000 / FY 1977 

An architectural design study of historic Afton Square 
was planned, including structural and market analysis 
as well as design work. Emphasis of the project was 
on exterior improvements to structures in the Square, 
parking facilities, open space, and landscaping. 

City of Portsmouth 

One High Street 

Portsmouth, VA 2 37 04 

Contact: J. Brewer Moore, Director of Planning, 804/ 

393-8836 
$10,820 / FY 1977 

Design of a pedestrian/bicycle path system and facil- 
ities — for a half mile section of St. Cloud's river 
frontage on the Mississippi — was prepared. Grantee 
proposed to build and test a section of the proposed 
route and facilities, and if successful, to extend 
the system along both sides of the river to inter- 
connect with residential areas, city parks, and the 
downtown. 

City of St. Cloud 

Housing and Redevelopment Authority 

9 5th Avenue North 

St. Cloud, MN 56301 

Contact: J. Michael Podawiltz, Director, 612/252-0880 

$29,980 / FY 1977 



89 

Design, planning and promotion of a predestian walkway 
linking Indiana State University with the downtown, the 
new City Library, and the historic preservation district 
were funded. 

City of Terre Haute 

Department of Redevelopment 

417 South Fifth Street 

Terre Haute, IN 47807 

Contact: Harold E. Baker, III, City Planner, 812/232-0018 

$9,000 / FY 1977 

Evaluation of recently built pedestrian areas in 
Wilmington, Delaware, was supported under this grant, 
along with the development of further design goals and 
a "kit of parts" to extend and improve areas for ped- 
estrian use in the city. 

City of Wilmington 

Department of Planning and Development 

1000 King Street 

Room 358 

Wilmington, DE 16801 

Contact: Mrs. Patricia C. Schramm, Director, 302/511-4140 

$30,000 / FY 1977 

Redesign of six public squares in Pittsburgh, supported 
by this grant, was to include an assessment process in 
cooperation with community organizations, users and 
potential users in order to develop creative solutions 
to existing problems within each public space. 

Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation 

Old Post Office Museum 

One Landmark Square 

Pittsburgh, PA 15212 

Contact: Arthur P. Ziegler, Jr., President, 412/322-1204 

$39,400 / FY 1977 

Amenities in downtown pedestrian malls were the focus of 
this grant given for research and preparation of a hand- 
book and film. Grantee proposed to use systematic ob- 
servation studies of pedestrian behavior in malls as 
the basis for developing criteria for the design, selec- 
tion and placement of amenities. 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

875 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, NY 10001 

Contact: Fred Kent, Director, 212/564-2906 

$10,000 / FY 1977 

A film and report on the function and design of public 
office building plazas were funded. Grantee prepared 
case studies of several plazas — including the Federal 
Office Building plaza in Seattle — to make recommendations 
on the uses and design of public open spaces. 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

875 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, NY 10001 

Contact: Fred Kent, Director, 212/564-2906 

$5,000 / FY 1977 



30 

Plans and designs to improve Union Square, in Milford, 
New Hampshire, its environs and approaches were supprted. 

Town of Milford 

Conservation Commission 

P.O. Box 108 

Milford, NH 03055 

Contact: William Ferguson, Chairman, 603/673-1201 

$3,100 / FY 1977 

Designs to incorporate the historic aqueduct into the 
Village of Ossining's development pattern were prepared, 
along with concept designs and details for the aqueduct's 
use as a pedestrian/recreational spine linking the com- 
munity's neighborhoods and facilities. 

Village of Ossining 

Department of Community Development 

15 Croton Avenue 

Ossining, NY 10562 

Contact: F. Joseph Pinizzotto, Director, 914/941-0751 

$25,000 / FY 1977 

Plans for restoration of Smith Court — center of Boston's 
Afro-American community in the 19th-century — and its 
connecting alleyways were assisted with this grant for 
a design study and archeological survey. The project's 
goal: "to enhance the space both as an historical 
artifact and as useful and attractive 20th-century 
pedestrian space." 

The Museum of Afro-American History 

Box 322, Smith Court 

Boston, MA 02114 

Contact: Bryon Rushing, President, 617/723-8863 

$14,200 / FY 1978 



Parks and recreation facilities 31 

A study of the potential recreational reuse of the 
C&O Canal, which runs from Washington, DC, to Cumber- 
land, Maryland, was completed; with special attention 
focused on canal-front sections of Harpers Ferry, West 
Virginia, and the Georgetown section of Washington. 
History, current conditions, and existing recreational 
facilities and uses were included in the illustrated 
final report. 

Donald William Evans 
Planners, Inc. 
1424 16th Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20036 
$4,900 / FY 1971 

Landscape designs to meet the recreational needs of low- 
income minorities were developed by the firm of William 
Wilson, a landscape architect. Four mini-parks for the 
inner city of Wilmington were designed and built with 
capital construction funds from the city's Parks and 
Recreation Fund. A booklet — Package Parks/A study of 
Open Space in Urban Communities — has been published. 

Delaware State Arts Council 

Room 80 3, Wilmington Tower 

1105 Market Street 

Washington, DC 19801 

Contact: William Wilson, Wilson Associates, Box 4957, 

Logo Court, Philadelphia, PA 19119, 215/247-4361 
$18,200 / FY 1972 

A pedestrian and bicycle network to encourage exploration 
of Boston--in keeping with the city's Bicentennial 
theme of "The City as an Exhibit" — was planned. After 
discussions with residents and historical research, 
reports were filed on eight Boston neighborhoods, trails 
were designed, and trail maps produced. A marker system 
was designed and implemented. 

Boston 200 Corporation 

One Beacon Street 

Boston, MA 02108 

Contact: Michael Southworth, 617/267-6667 

$35,000 / FY 1974 

Conversion of a fourteen-mile-long railroad right-of- 
way to a linear park or nature way was studied. The 
spur line, nearing abandonment, follows Montana's 
scenic Gallatin Valley. The project included photo- 
graphing existing conditions, and making renderings 
of possible future uses and plans. 

Bozeman City-County Planning Board 

Room 103, Gallatin County Courthouse 

Bozeman, MT 59715 

Contact: Stan Steadman, Planning Director, 406/587-1752 

$9,475 / FY 1974 



38 

Expansion of an historic park master plan to encourage 
economic development in Camden, South Carolina, was 
funded. The grant was terminated without completion. 

Camden Historical Commission 

P.O. Box 710 

Camden, SC 290 2 

Contact: Hope Boykin, Administrator, 803/432-9841 

$5,750 / FY 1974 

The public use of outdoor urban space for "urban cele- 
brations" such as neighborhood fairs, street festivals, 
and ethnic cultural events was studied, and "festival 
hardware systems" developed that could be loaned out 
to organizers of events. Prototype was the Baltimore 
City Fair held at the Inner Harbor Renewal Area, which 
in four years has grown to attract 1.8 million visitors 
over a three-day period. 

City of Baltimore 

Department of Planning 

232 East Saratoga Street 

Baltimore, MD 21201 

Contact: Alan F. Deanehan, Chief, 301/396-4307 

$25,000 / FY 1974 

Replanning of Marquette (Michigan) Harbor as a rec- 
reation facility in combination with present industrial 
uses included a study of development alternatives-- 
stressing the harbor's scenic and historic values and 
new accessibility to the central business district. 

City of Marguette 

220 West Washington Street 

Marquette, MI 49855 

Contact: Norman L. Gruber, Jr., City Planner, 906/226-7582 

$3,844 / FY 1974 

To promote and project a unique identity for Seattle 
Center--a 74-acre cultural sports and entertainment 
complex--a detailed urban-design plan for the area and 
its environs was made. Emphasis was on directions for 
future development around the area, which is now under- 
going "sub-optimum development with little regard for 
the Cneter's unique quality and $100 million public 
investment. " 

City of Seattle 

Municipal Building 

Seattle, WA 98104 

Contact: Madelyn Lindsay, Seattle Center, 305 Harrison 

Street, Seattle, WA 98109, 206/583-2544 
$20,000 / FY 1974 

Development of the Delaware-Raritan Canal as a recreational 
spine — with special emphasis on the canal as it passes 
through park pareas within the City of Trenton — was planned. 
Both the canal and Cadwalader Park are of major historic 
importance to the city, and now offer opportunities for new 
circulation systems and current recreational needs. 

City of Trenton 

Department of Planning and Development 

10 Capitol Street 

Trenton, NJ 08608 

Contact: Lee Weintraub, 609/393-9800 

$31,430 / FY 1974 



33 



Temporary and permanent parks on city-owned vacant land 
were established. Sites chosen included rubbish-filled 
urban renewal sites and undeveloped street ends at the 
waterfront which were identified under an earlier program. 
Work was coordinated with all appropriate city agencies. 

The Parks Council 

80 Central Park West 

New York, NY 10023 

Contact: Olga Straka, Associate Director, 212/799-6000 

$25,000 / FY 1974 

Planning of a park to replace the demolished jail in 
Greenwich Village was aided. After demolition, an im- 
mediate study of the site and its surroundings (Village 
Square) was undertaken in consultation with the Planning 
Board and the community; and a design for a sunken park 
was proposed for community reaction and suggestion. 

Frank Sanchis 
1500 Washington Street 
Peekskill, NY 10566 
$4,000 / FY 1974 

A system of hiking, biking, canoeing, and bridle trails 
linking important cultural landmarks was created in the 
mountain region of western Maryland. Also resulting from 
the grant were a summary of the historic sites, seven 
published trail guides, and further trail proposals. 

Stronghold, Inc. 

Dickerson, MD 20753 

Contact: Frederick Gutheim, Consultant on Urban Affairs, 

1750 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20006, 

202/298-7789 
$16,000 / FY 1974 

Design for a system of low-environmental-impact byways 
for casual foot, bicycle, and horseback transportation on 
Martha's Vineyard was studied as an alternative to an in- 
creasing road system. The system is planned to accom- 
modate the expected continued growth of residents and 
tourists without spoiling the fragile character of the 
land and seascapes. 

The Vineyard Open Land Foundation 

General Delivery 

West Tisbury, MA 02575 

Contact: Robert Komives, Executive Director, 

617/693-3280 
$14,750 / FY 1975 

Development of a master landscape plan for Tampa's Plant 
Park was funded. The plan was also to be used in fund- 
raising and implementation projects to accomplish the 
park's renewal. 

Arts Council of Tampa 

512 North Florida Avenue 

Tampa, FL 33602 

Contact: Raymond C. Master, Jr., Executive Director, 

813/229-6547 
$11,790 / FY 1976 



34 

A guidebook and kit for park development was to be pre- 
pared for national use and tested in the Dallas area. 
Emphasizing the needs of the people who do use and could 
use public parks, the catalog of do-it-yourself park im- 
provements was to include materials, lists, construction 
details, and information on how to fund improvements and 
organize the community. 

Community Design Center of Dallas, Inc. 

c/o Anne Blocker 

SMU, Box 945 

Dallas, TX 75275 

Contact: Ann Blocker, 214/691-7132 

$5,000 / FY 1976 

The design of creative outdoor environments to be con- 
structed near public schools in Los Angeles was the 
focus of this project. These environments were to be 
used as learning spaces for teachers and students, both 
during the design/planning/construction process as well 
as after the completion of the site. 

Richard A. Gutierrez 
413-B Howland Canal 
Venice, CA 90291 
$10,000 / FY 1976 

The comprehensive revitalization plan for Coney Island 
was to be prepared under this grant with emphasis on 
the preservation and adaptive use of older recreational 
facilities, the creation of new community amenities for 
vacant land, and the enhancement of the seashore and the 
commercial strip. Study was to aim at the promotion 
of private investment in the area and an increase in 
public awareness of Coney Island as an accessible urban 
resource . 

Institute of Human Relations of the American Jewish 
Committee 

165 East 56th Street 

New York, NY .10022 

Contact: Valerie Jorrin, Director of Community Develop- 
ment, 212/751-4000 

$20,000 / FY 1976 

Multidisciplinary workshops in play environment educa- 
tion for a seven-county area of New York State were 
supported. Object of each 12-week workshop was for 
the workshop staff and volunteers to plan and execute 
a well-designed, permanent neighborhood play facility 
for the participating community. 

Associated Colleges of the Mid-Hudson Area 

9 Vassar Street 

Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 

Contact: David Aaron, Director of Program Development, 

914/471-7477 
$7,500 / FY 1977 

Design of an Environmental Interaction System for St. 
Louis's Forest Park was planned as "a coordinated ap- 
proach to design, selection, and placement of small- 
scale improvements" for the 1400-acre park. Grant was 
used to design the unifying system of pathways, infor- 
mation graphics, lighting, and street furniture. 

City of St. Louis 

Department of Parks, Recreation and Forestry 

56 00 Clayton Road 

Forest Park 

St. Louis, MO 63110 

Contact: George M. Kinsey, Commissioner of Parks 

$11,500 / FY 1977 



38 



A waterfront park and access routes were designed for 
a former railroad right-of-way in Salem, Massachusetts. 
The right-of-way land was to be developed as a 40-foot- 
wide waterfront park connecting an existing public beach/ 
recreation area and historic residential area. 

City of Salem 

Planning Department 

One Salem Green 

Salem, MA 01970 

Contact: W. Gregory Senko, City Planner, 617/744-4580 

$15,000 / FY 1977 

Studies of historic Grant Park in Chicago were under- 
taken in response to development pressures threatening 
both park and adjacent lands. Grantee was to assess 
parking, recreation and other demands on the park; pre- 
pare a catalogue of its architectural and other resources; 
and recommend policies and design strategies for the 
future. 

The Open Lands Project 

53 W. Jackson Boulevard 

Chicago, IL 60604 

Contact: April Young, Director, 312/427-4256 

$13,000 / FY 1977 

A master plan for a linear park along the Bronx River 
in the South Bronx, New York, was prepared. This com- 
prehensive revitalization project was intended to im- 
prove the physical environment with recreational trails 
and other facilities; provide job opportunities for the 
minority unemployed and young people; establish oppor- 
tunities for development of small businesses; and create 
incentives for upgrading water quality of the river. 

Bronx River Restoration Project, Inc. 

375 East Fordham Road 

Bronx, NY 10458 

Contact: Axel Horn, Director of Long-Term Planning, 

914/763-3081 
$18,000 / FY 1978 

A prototype mobile park for Tampa, Florida's central 
business district was to be designed. Movable compo- 
nents — seating, planters, canopies — would be used to 
improve vacant lots in the CBD until redevelopment 
becomes feasible. 

Environmental Education, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1832 

Tampa, FL 33601 

Contact: David Wildes, Secretary, Tampa Community 

Design Center, Inc., 813/228-7721 
$2,849 / FY 1978 

Modification of conventional play facilities for mod- 
erately handicapped children was the focus of this 
project to compile reference materials, establish 
design criteria, and design specific structures that 
could be included in the planning of any adapted play 
area. 

Pittsburgh Architects Workshop 

2 37 Oakland Avenue 

Pittsburgh, PA 15213 

Contact: Stanley J. Kabula, 412/682-6360 

$5,970 / FY 1978 



Fountains, art, regreening, etc. 

A project to promote the arts in a new urban center in 
Jamaica, Queens, New York City, included hiring a full- 
time arts planner to urge placing of art in public spaces 
The planner also held an exhibit of Queens artists, and 
made an architectural survey of Queens County. 

Queens Council on the Arts 

218-14 Jamaica Avenue 

Queens Village, NY 11428 

Contact: F. Carlisle Towery, Executive Director, 
Greater Jamaica Development Corporation, 161-10 
Jamaica Avenue, Jamaica, NY 11432, 202/291-0282 

$10,000 / FY 1972 

The design of a large architectonic sculpture, suitable 
for placement in a city park, along an urban parkway, or 
in a new town or campus, was funded by this grant. 

Craig Ellwood 

Craig Ellwood Associates 

110 7 South Robertson Boulevard 

Los Angeles, CA 90035 

$10,000 / FY 1973 

Continued support of promotion of art in a new center 
in Jamaica, Queens, New York, was funded. 

Queens Council on the Arts 

218-14 Jamaica Avenue 

Queens Village, NY 11428 

Contact: F. Carlisle Towery, Executive Director, 
Greater Jamaica Development Corporation, 161-10 
Jamaica Avenue, Jamaica, NY 11432, 202/291-0282 

$20,000 / FY 1973 

Planning and an action program for "regreening" 
Huntington, West Virginia, was established. The city 
had long been known for its tree-shaded avenues, boul- 
evards, and parks — but many of the trees were affected 
by old age, relocation of traffic arteries, plus normal 
loss during building. The program consisted of re- 
planting of trees and shrubs in public areas, gifts of 
trees to business owners who agreed to plant and care 
for them, advice when requested to private citizens, 
and a program of leaf accumulation for planting purposes. 

City of Huntington 

Board of Park Commissioners 

P.O. Box 284 

Huntington, WV 25707 

Contact: Charles C. Lewis, Director, Parks and 

Cemeteries, 304/696-5954 
$34,735 / FY 1974 

Planning for a broad and state-wide arts program in 
South Carolina was begun under this grant. An environ- 
mental artist was employed to develop projects such as 
playground sculpture, esthetic improvement of highway 
rest areas, reclaiming of abandoned public facilities 
for community activities, development of mini-parks in 
downtown areas. The artist served as catalyst to try 
to develop local support for each project. 

South Carolina Arts Commission 

829 Richland Street 

Columbia, SC 29201 

Contact: Rick George, Executive Director, 

803/758-3442 
$15,405 / FY 1974 



37 



Guidelines for the location and design of fountains as 
sources of sound to hide or mask urban noises (such as 
traffic noises) were developed. Research was done at 
model scale; studies of noise from full-size fountains 
and other noise sources were made; and a booklet pre- 
sented the guidelines in specific technical terms. 

Glenn E. Sweitzer 
235 Wyman Street 
Waltham, MA 02154 
$11,000 / FY 1974 

A "curator" for cultural-environmental activities in 
downtown Brooklyn, New York, was partially supported 
under this grant. "The revitalized area has attracted 
active people," and the "curator" was intended to as- 
sure that cultural-environmental concerns continued to 
be an intrinsic part of the redevelopment process. 

Downtown Brooklyn Development Association, Inc. 

26 Court Street 

Brooklyn, NY 11242 

Contact: Director, 212/522-7200 

$18,000 / FY 1975 

Two "Celebrations in City Places" for Little Rock and 
Tulsa were "specifically designed to highlight and 
revitalize the urban centers of these cities by cele- 
brating the resources which exist there... and expand 
the potential for community life..." The grantee 
group included local artists and performance groups 
in addition to the traveling Celebrations Group 
artists, and after a week's residency, the full-day 
program was climaxed by an evening performance in an 
environmental setting. 

Elaine Summers Experimental Intermedia Foundation, Inc. 

537 Broadway 

New York, NY 10012 

Contact: Marilyn Wood, Marilyn Wood and the Celebrations 

Group, 100 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10003, 212/ 

477-3122 
$10,000 / FY 1975 

A guide to planting of trees and shrubs in containers 
or tubs for landscaping of streetscapes, malls, plazas, 
and other public spaces was developed. The goal was to 
reduce the present high percentage of failure of such 
plantings. 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park 

Bronx, NY 10458 

Contact: Carlton B. Lees, Project Director, 212/933-9400 

$16,500 / FY 1975 

A demonstration of creating open space by combining 
rear yards of a typical urban city block — to provide 
a common neighborhood green and recreational open space — 
was planned. The hope was the "if such a new city option 
were available on a broad scale, it would provide induce- 
ment to help stop the outflow of residents to the suburbs, 

San Francisco Planning and Urban Renewal Association 

126 Post Street 

San Francisco, CA 94108 

Contact: Sherwood Stockwell, Member of the Board, 

415/781-1526 
$9,300 / FY 1975 



38 

A coordinated urban design plan for qreen spaces and 
public areas in Spartanburg, South Carolina, was funded. 
The grantee intended to create a document and media 
presentation of the plan for increased government and 
public understanding and utliziation. 

City of Spartanburg 

City Planning Department 

P.O. Box 1749 

Spartanburg, SC 29304 

Contact: W. H. Carstarpher, City Manager, 803/585-4361 

$5,000 / FY 1976 

A public awareness program on creating community identity 
through vegetation planning was funded. An informative 
brochure, a slide presentation, and how-to-do-it materials 
were to be prepared and disseminated. 

City of Upper Arlington 

36 00 Tremont Road 

Upper Arlington, OH 43221 

Contact: Hal W. Hyrne, City Manager, 614/457-5080 

$3,625 / FY 1976 

Design and demonstration of fountains and animated water — 
"a decorative, humanizing and visually delightful ele- 
ment in cities" — were planned for the Louis Armstrong 
Park/Cultural Center site in New Orleans. Grantee pro- 
posed to investigate economical construction methods, low 
energy consumption, and low-maintenance water use. 

City of New Orleans 

Vieux Carre Commission 

630 Chartres Street 

New Orleans, LA 70130 

Contact: Director, 504/581-3510 

$40,860 / FY 1977 

Artists' planning and design fees for an open space 
enhancement program were supported. Project was con- 
ceived as a collaborative process involving city agencies 
artists, and the public to improve selected sited in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts — including blighted traffic 
islands, city entrances, and access routes. City depart- 
ments guaranteed funds for artists' materials and labor 
for installation of the finished works. 

Cambridge Arts Council Fund 

57 Inman Street 

Cambridge, MA 02139 

Contact: Pamela Worden, Executive Director, 617/354-4182 

$20,000 / FY 1978 



Land-use Planning, Conservation 
and Preservation of Open Space 39 

A comprehensive revitalization plan for the Little 
Calumet River Basin, a neglected and polluted area 
at the southern tip of Lake Michigan, was undertaken. 
The design analysis concentrated on flood control and 
water quality, possible recreation and park uses, and 
regional government coordination, "Little Calumet River 
Study" is an illustrated summary. 

Lake Michigan Region Planning Council 

35 East Wacker Drive 

Chicago, IL 60601 

Contract: George N. Hall, Hall Kane Associates, Inc., 

607 Broadway, Gary, IN 46402, 219/882-9314 
$10,000 / FY 1967 

A conference on the impact of the Tocks Island Dam on 
the upper Delaware River was held. The dam was to have 
created a 30-mile lake and a national recreation area; 
the conference on the opporutnities for and opposition 
to the project was attended by about seventy-five Federal, 
state, and local leaders and planning officials. The 
conference received extensive press coverage in four 
states. This controversial dam project has since been 
abandoned. 

Tocks Island Regional Advisory Council 

Kymer Building 

40 Park Place 

Newton, NJ 07860 

Contact: Frank W. Dressier, Executive Director, 

717/421-9841 
$10,000 / FY 1967 

Ways to combine coal extraction with desirable land 
development in the Appalachia region were studied. The 
hope was to find economically feasible "guidelines for 
the physical development of the mountain environment 
that would maximize levels of mineral extraction within 
acceptable limits of environmental health." 

University of Kentucky Research Foundation 

Lexington, KY 40506 

Contact: James A. Prestridge, Director, Institute for 

Environmental Studies, 606/257-1646 
$30,000 / FY 1969 

A study of the feasibility of a watershed area for a new 
town was made under this grant. The Owens Valley area 
of California, a watershed for Los Angeles and largely 
owned by the city, was considered a prime site for a 
new town. The study was conducted and its methods and 
findings summarized in an 85-page book, Owens Valley 
Study , which has been distributed to all architecture 
and landscape architecture schools. 

University of Southern California 

Los Angeles, CA 90007 

Contact: Ralph Knowles, Professor of Architecture, 

213/746-2725 
$30,000 / FY 1969 



40 

To illustrate the impact of waterfronts on land-use 
planning concepts, small harbors were studied util- 
izing aerial and ground photography. A report on the 
public use of land and water resources was prepared. 

Richard Tatlock 

Coastal Research Corporation 

30 Lancaster Street 

Loft 2 

Boston, MA 02114 

$5,000 / FY 1970 

Criteria for control of growth in mountain-lake areas 
which are subject to increasing demand for recreational 
development were established. These criteria were 
presented in a report with graphic and photograhic il- 
lustrations . 

Sherwood S. Stockwell 
350 Pacific Avenue 
San Francisco, CA 94111 
$4,500 / FY 1971 

A plan for control of development in New Jersey's Pine 
Barrens— a unique ecological area and the largest un- 
developed tract of land east of the Mississippi — was 
developed. The goal was not to prevent development, 
"an impossible task for any area so large and so near 
existing urbanization," but to control the development 
in order to preserve the ecology and the vast quantities 
of pure underground water for future generations. 

Joyce Haney 
1274 East Kay Drive 
Chevy Hill, NJ 08034 
$9,750 / FY 1973 

A proposal of detailed planning alternatives for the 
Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone in San Antonio was the 
focus of this project. The cooperative plan for the 
protection of this sensitive environmental area involved 
a written report and an audio-visual presentation to 
realtors, builders, developers, public officials, and 
land owners. 

Citizens for a Better Environment, Inc. 

705 South Texas Building 

San Antonio, TX 78205 

Contact: Anne Blocker, LaMancha Group, Inc., SMU Box 

945, Dallas, TX 75275, 214/691-7132 
$25,000 / FY 1974 

The best use of seven streams and rivers in Columbus, 
Ohio, was studied. A new design concept for reshaping, 
conserving and "preserving" the rivers, and for "facing 
the city towards the rivers" was developed. 

City of Columbus 

Department of Recreation and Parks 

Columbus, OH 43 215 

Contact: Kenneth J. McElroy, Chief Land Architect, 

614/461-7342 
$40,000 / FY 1974 



41 



A master plan for restoring Luther Burbank ' s historic 
experimental farm on 3.5 acres was funded. The program 
included physical site analysis, plans for long-term 
financial support to maintain the site, and a study of 
the impact of general public versus limited or restricted 
use of the site. 

City of Sebastopol 

7120 Bodega Avenue 

City Hall 

Sebastopol, CA 95472 

Contact: Melvin K. Davis, City Manager, 707/823-7863 

$5,000 / FY 1974 

Identification and protection of the "the edges" of 
San Juan, Puerto Rico — forty-five miles of inland water, 
twenty miles of ocean beach, and twenty miles of foot- 
hills — was planned. These elements, "working as an in- 
tegrated natural system," are threatened by change, 
growth, and pollution. The resulting plan for develop- 
ment and/or preservation included strategies for im- 
lementation and economic alternatives. 

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 

Puerto Rico Planning Board 

P.O. Box 9447 

Santurce, PR 00908 

Contact: Rafael Alonso Alonso, Chairman, 809/726-6200 

$40,000 / FY 1974 

The design and presentation of the Patapsco River 
Restoration Plan — "intended to preserve this small 
Maryland river much as historic buildings are pre- 
served "--was funded. The goal: to show by this small 
example how larger and more complex river systems can 
be restored as publicly or privately held trusts con- 
tributing to the beauty of the landscape. 

Rurik F. Ekstrom 
10351 Barcan Circle 
Columbia, MD 21044 
$8,875 / FY 1974 

The use of river and strean corridors within Elkhart, 
Indiana, for varied recreation was studied. Included 
was a land-use feasibility study, construction cost 
estimate program, and costing and implementation plan. 
Emphasis was on walking and bicycle paths; rest areas; 
and canoe, kayak, and rowing facilities; with a system 
for returning boats and bicycles to the point of origin 
after use. 

Raymond L. Enfield 
405 South Second Street 
Elkhart, IN 46514 
$10,000 / FY 1974 



42 

Environmental design input to the California Coastal 
Zone Plan was funded. This project provided part of 
the design element of the plan by identifying the de- 
sign values found in the coastal area and suggesting 
policies for the preservation of these values. 

William H. Liskamm 

10 Napier Lane 

San Francisco, CA 94133 

$9,500 / FY 1974 

The historic and cultural landscape elements of the 
French Creek Iron County in Pennsylvania were to be 
surveyed and analyzed under this grant. This is the 
second phase of a program to preserve and conserve 
critical architectural and landscape elements which 
provide visual quality in America. 

French and Pickering Creeks Conservation Trust, Inc. 

P.O. Box 360, RD 2 

Pottstown, PA 19464 

Contact: Thomas W. Richards, Director, 703/527-1566 

$14,000 / FY 1975 

An environmental design-options program for the lower 
Rio Grande area was intended "to provide local officials 
with tools and techniques to make sound land-use de- 
cisions allowed under state laws." The area's highly 
specialized citrus and sugar cane land is undergoing 
urban sprawl at a very high rate. The program was 
conducted by Texas A & M University faculty, selected 
consultants and graduate students, and included work- 
shops for officials at all government levels in the 
area. 

Texas A & M University 

College Station, TX 77843 

Contact: James R. Gardner, Department of Urban and 

Regional Planning, 713/845-1047 
$20,521 / FY 1975 

A manual to assist landowners to manage, improve, or 
dispose of land — "in a way that realizes maximum bene- 
fits to both himself and his community "--was funded. 
The goal: "a sound appreciation of the responsibility 
and opportunity of land stewardship which is essential 
to the conservation of Maine's rural landscape." This 
grant was terminated without completion. 

State of Maine 

Department of Conservation 

State House 

Augusta, ME 04 3 30 

Contact: Donaldson Kochs, Commissioner, Department 

of Conservation, 207/289-2791 
$25,000 / FY 1975 



43 



Townscape conservation in selected New England cities 
and towns was the focus of this project. The grantee 
provided a visual awareness process for local residents, 
consultations with merchants and property owners, and 
advocacy of corporate and local governmental policy to 
selected communities with environmental quality but 
limited financial and professional resources. 

Vision, Inc. 

Suite 601 

678 Massachusetts Avenue 

Cambridge, MA 02139 

Contact: Michael Robinson, Director of Urban Design, 

617/491-3763 
$15,000 / FY 1975 






Economic feasiblity studies and site designs for 
America's first Shaker settlement (Watervliet, New York) 
were to be undertaken as a result of this grant. In pre- 
paration for a public bond referendum on land acquisition, 
the project was to consider adaptive use and recreation 
potential for the small village and 700 acres of open 
space surrounding it. 

Town of Colonie 

Memorial Town Hall 

Newtonville, NY 12128 

Contact: Peter Wolf, 8 West 4 0th Street, New York, 

NY 10018, 212/947-0765 
$16,400 / FY 1976 

The rehabilitation of the City of Greenbelt, Maryland — 
an important new town built by the Federal government 
in 1930 — received funding. Funds were to assist with 
structural, financial and design studies, including the 
development of prototype treatments for improving 
buildings and grounds. Special emphasis was to be 
placed on open space preservation. 

City of Greenbelt 

25 Crescent Road 
Greenbelt, MD 20770 

Contact: Kenneth J. Kopstein, Assistant General Manager, 
Greenbelt Homes, Inc., Hamilton Place, Greenbelt, MD 
20770, 301/474-5566 

$20,000 / FY 1977 

A program to advance public interest in preserving the 
rural landscape was developed by the Iowa Division of 
Historic Preservation. Assistance was for preparation 
of illustrated materials, development of a course and a 
conference. 

State of Iowa 

Division of Historic Preservation 

26 East Market Street 
Iowa City, IA 52240 

Contact: Adrian D. Anderson, Director, Division of 

Historic Preservation, Iowa State Historical Department, 
319/353-4186 

$16,765 / FY 1977 



44 

Study of an urban corridor along the Potomac River in 
Montgomery County, Maryland, and its proposed zoning 
as an urban conservation area was made by the America 
the Beautiful Fund for a coalition of 25 civic as- 
sociations. The study was intended to provide direction 
for citizen participation in the county's decision-making 
process. 

America the Beautiful Fund 

219 Shoreham Building 

Washington, DC 20005 

Contact: Paul Bruce Dowling, Executive Director, 

202/638-1649 
$12,500 / FY 1978 

To encourage the most efficient use of landscape in 
Fayette County, Kentucky, for tourism and community 
uses, grantee conducted field surveys of significant 
physical and visual features and made recommendations 
for preservation. A publication incorporating the 
findings was intended to increase public awareness and 
understanding of the project. 

Blue Grass Land and Nature Trust 

712 West Short Street 

Lexington, KY 40508 

Contact: Nils Nordquist, 606/258-8605 

$1,000 / FY 1978 

An Historical Preservation Plan for the coastal zone 
of San Mateo County, California, was developed in con- 
junction with the formation of the local Coastal Program. 
The preservation plan was to provide guidance for new 
development that would be compatible with the character 
of small rural villages such as San Gregorio and 
Pescadero. 

County of San Mateo 

County Government Center 

Redwood City, CA 9406 3 

Contact: Dennis Kein, Senior Planner, 415/364-5600 

$20,815 / FY 1978 

To protect threatened urban wildsites in Boston, grantee 
conducted research to determine ownership of the land, 
obtain real-estate appraisals, and develop conditional 
purchase-and-sale agreements. 

Fund for Preservation of Wildlife and Natural Areas 

175 Federal Street 

Boston, MA 02110 

Contact: John Blackwell, Boston Natural Areas Fund 

Committee, 73 Temont Street, Boston, MA 02108, 

617/227-3285 
$20,000 / FY 1978 

To incorporate urban design concepts into a statewide 
land planning, the Alaska Division of Lands researched 
"the experiences of other cities which have acquired 
surrounding lands in order to control the location, 
quality, and timing of urban developemnts . " Products 
of the project were to include demonstration models 
for urban design and land management programs and a 
series of community presentations. 

State of Alaska 

Department of Natural Resources 
Division of Lands 
323 E. 4th Avenue 
Anchorage, AK 49 501 

Contact: Stephen M. Reeve, Chief, Planning/Clas- 
sification, Alaska Division of Lands, 907/279-5577 
$15,000 / FY 1978 



Environmental Education and 
Awareness 48 

A method of simulating spaces and environments with 
projected images was developed, using one silent and 
one sound 8mm projector, one stereophonic tape, recorder, 
and two 35mm slide projectors with multi-image lens 
adaptors. Three films were developed--one showing a 
ride on an interstate highway; another a panorama of 
architectural spaces; and "Dump-Eat," a program on con- 
sumerism and landscape. One of the three, entitled 
"Filmscapes, " was produced for public viewing. 

John F. Furlong 
95 Fairmont Street 
Arlington, MA 02174 
$4,600 / FY 1970 

CITY/2, an exhibit, dramatized the amount of public 
space in Philadelphia and the argument that "the 
publicly-owned land is the most pervasive, insistent 
single influence on the urban visual experience." 
(Forty percent of all land in the average American 
city is publicly owned, the figure in Philadelphia is 
fifty-five percent.) The goal was a standard for 
civic environmental performance; "to define concepts 
and establish responsibilities for the urban visual 
experience. " 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 

P.O. Box 7646 

Philadelphia, PA 19101 

Contact: Richard Saul Wurman, 1214 Arch Street, 

Philadelphia, PA 19107, 215/564-4400 
$10,000 / FY 1970 

A program to publicize and encourage use of Boston's 
"Urban Wilds" — her hilltops, shorelines, wetlands, and 
historic open spaces — was developed. Phase One, to be 
implemented for the Bicentennial, was a citywide traveling 
exhibition and guide of these spaces, and a guidebook to 
walking and bike tours of these historic and scenic 
locations. 

Boston Redevelopment Authority 

City Hall 

Room 900 

2 City Hall Square 

Boston, MA 02201 

Contact: John R. Blackwell, Boston Natural Areas Fund, 

73 Tremont Street, Boston, MA 02108, 617/624-5300 
$50,000 / FY 1974 

A book on "places for celebration" in three American 
cities was financed. Photographs, drawings, and text 
suggest how spaces can be used as stage sets for various 
scales of celebration — with emphasis on presenting cities 
as our greatest expression of identity for the Bicen- 
tennial. 

J. P. Chadwick Floyd 
4200 49th Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20016 
$10,000 / FY 1974 



46 

A public awareness program documenting benefits of 
pedestrian districts in an effort to foster the idea 
that "the pedestrian is the paramount user of the city" — 
was funded. Project included a traveling exhibit of the 
most successful pedestrian experiments around the world, 
several publications discussing the issues and conflicts 
involved, and a series of open forums for debate. There 
was emphasis on a study demonstrating not just improved 
environment, but improved economics of the city as a 
result of attitudinal changes. 

Institute for Environmental Action, Inc. 

81 Leonard Street 

New York, NY 10013 

Contact: Roberto Brambilla, Director, 212/966-6390 

$15,000 / FY 1974 

An environmental program for the Virginia Piedmont 
countryside was begun to create more public and govern- 
menta awareness and to identify and protect positive 
characteristics. Heavy emphasis was placed on develop- 
ment of legal means to implement controls on design and 
land use indicated by the study, and on developing ed- 
ucation processes to foster citizen concern and to aid 
regional and local decision-makers. 

Piedmont Environmental Council 

28-C Main Street 

Warrenton, VA 2218 6 

Contact: W. P. Dinsmoor White, Executive Director, 

703/347-2334 
$41,000 / FY 1974 

A series of three town meetings in California, held to 
discuss environmental and design problems and build 
public awareness of solutions and action needed, were 
funded. One was held in Sacramento — where a unique 
multipurpose recreation facility of excellent design is 
threatened by conflicting claims on river use, and two 
were held in southern California where conflict exists 
over the use of the California desert. Materials 
developed for the meetings were to be used as a continuing 
education resource. 

California Tomorrow 

681 Market Street 

Room 1059 

San Francisco, CA 94105 

Contact: John W. Abbott, Executive Secretary and Editor, 

415/391-7544 
$27,660 / FY 1975 

General education programs by the Seattle Office of 
Urban Conservation were funded—including "More Streets 
for People" and other programs directed by increasing 
public awareness of conservation principles. Additionally, 
new conservation projects were instigated. 

City of Seattle 

Municipal Building 

Seattle, WA 98104 

Contact: Arthur M. Skolnik, 206/583-6054 

$10,000 / FY 1975 



47 



An environmental awareness program for Hawaii — 
focusing on reducing present polarizations by stressing 
the "how" rather than the "whether" of development-- 
reached the public through films and educational 
materials, studies of Hawaii's existing land use and 
environmental laws and policies, and education programs 
to schools and citizen groups. The hope was that 
"citizen groups would maintain cooperative relations 
with planning authorities and work towards higher quality 
design solutions." 

Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts 

250 South King Street 

Honolulu, HI 96813 

Contact: Frank S. Haines, FAIA, 808/548-4145 

$20,000 / FY 1975 

An exhibition on the streets of Washington, DC, was 
to be produced for display in the Union Station Visitors 
Center. The streets — past, present, and future — were 
to be shown through drawings, photographs, diagrams, 
artifacts, and an audio/visual show. 

American Institute of Architects Foundation, Inc. 

1735 New York Avenue, NW 

Washington, DC 20006 

Contact: Jeanne Butler Hodges, 202/638-3105 

$110,000 / FY 1976 

Design studies and public awareness efforts for 
selected streetscapes in Brooklyn and Manhattan were 
assisted by this grant. Chosen for the special 
character that each provides to its surrounding neigh- 
borhood, the streets were to include Mulberry Street 
in Little Italy; and Broadway, Court Street, and Newkirk 
Plaza in Brooklyn. Emphasis was to be on providing 
design options and implementation tools to community 
residents committed to community enhancement. 

City Planning Department Fund 

2 Lafayette Street 

New York, NY 10007 

Contact: Raquel Ramati, Director, Urban Design Group, 

212/566-0600 
$20,000 / FY 1976 

The Cleveland Restoration Festival was supported by 
this grant. Intended to dramatize economic and 
cultural benefits of improved urban environments, the 
Festival was to include audio-visual presentations 
and displays in schools, libraries, and other public 
spaces; tours; block parties; and the opening of a 
store-front Community Design Center. 

Cleveland Area Arts Council 

140 The Arcade 

Cleveland, OH 44114 

Contact: Nina Gibans, 216/781-0045 

$5,000 / FY 1976 



48 

A public awareness program on visual environmental 
issues of Lafayette, Louisiana, was funded under 
this grant. The program was to consist of a film 
on architecture, a photographic competition and ex- 
hibition on rural-urban relationships, and various 
symposia and lectures involving the participation of 
outstanding artists and designers. 

Lafayette Natural History Museum and Planetarium 

Association, Inc. 
637 Girard Park Drive 
Lafayette, LA 70501 

Contact: Neil Martin Nehrbass, 318/234-2347 
$10,000 / FY 1976 

Research and script development for a one-hour 
television program on urban river gorges and falls 
were supported by this grant. The research was to 
examine seven such urban river sites across the 
country as case studies for their deterioration over 
the last century. Options for the prevention of 
futher deterioration and restoration were to be 
explored. 

Roy B . Mann 
72 River Road 
Merrimacport, MA 01860 
$8,000 / FY 1976 

A book dealing with children's personal outdoor 
space was to be prepared under this grant for use by 
teachers, parents, and planners. 

Robin C. Moore 

Department of Landscape Architecture 

2020 Wurster Hall 

University of California 

Berkeley, CA 94720 

$9,640 / FY 1976 

To increase public awareness and involvement in the 
reuse of Main Street in Ogden, Utah, was the focus 
of this project. An audio-visual presentation and 
brochure were planned. 

Ogden City Corporation 

Department of Community Development 

2650 Washington Boulevard 

Ogden, UT 84401 

Contact: Richard L. Larsen, City Manager, 801/399-8011 

$5,910 / FY 1976 

An environmental awareness program for junior high 
school students in Lawrence, Kansas, was funded. The 
project was to expand their consciousness of the 
effects of major architectural and spatial elements 
in the environment. 

University of Kansas 

Lawrence, KS 6604 5 

Contact: Dolores Brooking, Curator of Museum Education, 

University of Kansas Museum of Art, 913/864-4710 
$2,968 / FY 1976 



49 



Workshops and materials for an environmental education 
program with citywide participation by students and 
teachers were supported. Students designed thematic 
walking tours of their school neighborhoods and produced 
annotated maps for the walks. The program was admin- 
istered by the Council on the Environment of New York City. 

Administration and Management Research Corporation 
of New York City, Inc. 

Contact: Michael Zamm, Project Director, Council on 
the Environment of New York City, 51 Chambers Street, 
Room 228, New York, NY 10007, 212/566-0990 

$12,220 / FY 1977 

Documentation and evaluation of the architecture/environ- 
mental arts component of the Artists-in-Schools Program 
were carried out with this grant. The program places 
architects and landscape architects in short-term re- 
sidencies in elementary and secondary schools to develop 
projects and learning materials on the built environ- 
ment. 

Educational Futures, Inc. 

2118 Spruce Street 

Philadelphia, PA 19103 

Contact: Aase Eriksen, Director, 215/735-2118 

$32,100 / FY 1977 

Continuation of the Environmenatl Internship Program 
in New England and New York was funded. Student interns 
provide short-term technical assistance to community 
organizations and government agencies, and participate 
in interdisciplinary workshops and seminars to enhance 
their field experience. 

Massachusetts Audubon Society 

Lincoln, MA 01773 

Contact: Susan W. Hunnewell, Director, Environmental 

Intern Program. 617/259-9500 
$10,000 / FY 1977 

Development of creative alternatives for eliminating 
visual blight at key sites in New York City was sup- 
ported. Grantee proposed to devise "low cost design 
solutions that can make a dramatic improvement" and 
to utilize them in a program of broad public education, 
including a "before/during/after" slide show, exhibit, 
materials, a poster and brochure. 

Municipal Art Society 

4 57 Madison Avenue 

New York, NY 10022 

Contact: Bronson Binger, Vice President, 212/935-3960 

$10,000 / FY 1977 

Preparation of graphic material and the layout for a 
book on environmental awareness were supported by this 
grant. The publication was derived from a field-tested 
pilot course on design and environmental decision-making. 

University of Texas at Arlington 

School of Architecture and Environmental Design 

Arlington, TX 76010 

Contact: George W. Wright, Dean, 817/273-2801 

$6,000 / FY 1977 



50 

"Search for a New Land Ethic" was the theme of an 
international forum of landscape architecture students 
and professionals held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
and State University. Grant funds were used for the 
contributions of professionals from disciplines nor- 
mally outside the mainstream of land planning and use. 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 
Blacksburg, VA 24061 

Contact: Alan Winslow, Project Director, 703/951-5383 
$9,990 / FY 1977 

A touring lecture-exhibit program on Arcology — Paolo 
Solari's concept of ecologically sound architecture 
in urban design — was assisted. The program would be 
"in residence" at host institutions for one week periods 
to present information and provide a forum for discussion 
of urban design issues. 

Cosanti Foundation 

64 33 Doubletree Road 

Scottsdale, AZ 85253 

Contact: Jeffrey Stein, Architectural Design/Research, 

607/948-6145 
$3,000 / FY 1978 

Development of an Architects in Communities program-- 
to place architects and landscape architects in resi- 
dencies in community institutions — was assisted by 
this grant. Grantee formulated program concepts, 
guidelines for funding of applicants and a pilot 
program. 

Educational Futures, Inc. 

2118 Spruce Street 

Philadelphia, PA 19103 

Contact: Aase Eriksen, Director, 215/735-2118 

$15,810 / FY 1978 

Documentation and evaluation of the architectural/ 
environmental arts component of the Artists-in-Schools 
Program were continued for a second year with this 
grant. 

Educational Futures, Inc. 

2118 Spruce Street 

Philadelphia, PA 19103 

Contact: Aase Eriksen, Director, 215/735-2118 

$22,060 / FY 1978 

A citywide sign system — identifying ethnic group 
achievements and sites in the varied neighborhoods 
of Salem, Massachusetts — was intended to give residents 
"a sense of historical connection between themselves 
and their environment." 

Historic Salem, Inc. 

P.O. Box 865 

Salem, MA 01970 

Contact: Robert A. Booth, Jr., Director of Research, 

617/744-8804 
$9,775 / FY 1978 



51 



An audio-visual presentation from the exhibit "More 
Streets for People" was converted to 16mm film for 
wider distribution to educational and community groups. 

Institute for Environmental Action, Inc. 

81 Leonard Street 

New York, NY 10013 

Contact: Roberto Brambilla, 212/260-6278 

$5,000 / FY 1978 

A one-year environmental design program assisted by 
this grant was intended for design students, practicing 
professionals, and the general public. The project's 
goals: to increase the proficiency of professional 
and preprofessional environmental designers; generate 
new information and design concepts for the region; 
and increase public awareness of design. 

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State 

University 
Greensboro, NC 27411 

Contact: C. A. Fountain, 919/379-7520 
$15,000 / FY 1978 

A 16mm film of "If You Want to Change Your City" — the 
principal module from the exhibition "The Streets of 
Washington" — was produced and made available for dis- 
tribution through professional societies and the 
agencies which participated in the exhibition. 

Joseph R. Passonneau 
3015 Que Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20007 
$17,500 / FY 1978 

An education program on the use of observation research 
to plan design improvements to public spaces was developed 
for administrators, design professionals, and students. 
Grantee prepared curriculum materials and conducted an 
initial training program. 

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 

875 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, NY 10001 

Contact: Fred Kent, Director, 212/564-2906 

$15,000 / FY 1978 

Beautif ication of Cleveland's rapid transit right-of- 
way was to be initiated through an environmental 
education project involving community groups, students, 
and local design professionals. Assistance was for 
development of a slide show on the clean-up program, 
preparation of materials for use in the classroom, and 
support of artists and landscape architects who would 
work in the classroom with students on specific im- 
provement efforts. 

Rapid Recovery, Inc. 
1404 East 9th Street 
Cleveland, OH 44144 
Contact: Holly Bierrer, Assistanct Director, 216/ 

566-7396 
$10,000 / FY 1978 



58 

A Guide to New York City Open Spaces was researched and 
produced with this grant. Included in the guide were 
listings of parks, plazas, streets, playgounds and 
other open spaces and suggested walking tours of 
selected areas. Two mobile exhibits for outdoor dis- 
play were developed to highlight less well-known 
spaces in Manhattan and other boroughs. 

Research Foundation of the City University of New 

York, 
Convert Avenue at 138th Street 
New York, NY 100 31 
Contact: Paul M. Friedberg, Director, Urban Landscape 

Program, City College of New York, 212/247-8480 
$24,020 / FY 1978 

Seminars and informational materials on recycling 
vacant urban lands for recreational and open-space 
uses were funded as part of a comprehensive program 
to train community leaders in this process. 

The Trust for Public Land, Inc. 

82 Second Street 

San Francisco, CA 94105 

Contract: John E. Nelson, Director of Training, 

415/495-4014 
$15,000 / FY 1978 

Learning materials for "The Campus Course" — a program 
to introduce environmental design to a wide spectum of 
students and community members in the San Francisco- 
Bay area — were developed with this grant. Materials 
were based on the concept that "college and university 
campuses are designed environments, and that they are 
available for use as experiential learning laboratories 

through personalized, self-paced and self-guided 

instructional materials." 

University of California-Berkeley 

M-ll Wheeler Hall 

Berkeley, CA 94720 

Contact: Roger Montgomery, Professor of Architecture 

and City Planning, 415/642-0832 
$22,890 / FY 1978 

"The Livable Winter City" was the theme of two 
international conferences held in 1978 and 1979 on 
enhancement of the design and livability of far 
northern cities in North America. Conferees from 
the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Scandinavia 
and the Soviet Union focused on three subject areas; 
the design and physical appearance of buildings in 
cold-weather environments, landscaping considerations, 
and human activities in winter cities including out- 
door recreation and transportation needs. 

University of Minnesota 

26 42 University Avenue 

St. Paul, MN 55114 

Contact: William C. Rogers, Director, Continuing 

Education in public policy, 612/373-3709 
$7,710 / FY 1978 



Research, and Studies 53 

A guide to basic principles of landscape design and 
vocabulary of usage of landscape plantings for de- 
signers was developed. Emphasis was on plants as 
functional design elements beyond beautif ication. Re- 
sults were set forth in Plants, People, and Environ- 
m ental Quality , published by the ASLA Foundation and 
the National Park Service; and were included in the 
author's book, Planting Design . 

Gary 0. Robinette 
2360 Antigua Ct. 
Reston, VA 
$4,800 / FY 1970 

"Natural determinants and environmental factors affecting 
quality -of human life" were studied. The goal was to 
identify these factors, and apply them to analyzing a 
specific example of environmental design. 

John W. Seddon, Jr. 
162 Old Briarcliff Road 
Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510 
$5,000 / FY 1970 

Laws and practices affecting land use in France and 
Great Britain were studied, with emphasis on the way 
in which government programs and tax laws have encour- 
aged conservation of scenic and culturally significant 
properties. Goal was a series of articles on applica- 
bility of this experience to planning in the United 
States. 

William K. Reilly 
Conservation Foundation 
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, NW 
Washington, DC 20036 
$5,000 / FY 1972 

Documentation in slides of good and bad public spaces 
in Europe and the United States was part of the grantee's 
continuing research in all causes of urban visual blight. 
Information on the study was published in two issues of 
On Site, a magazine of 5,000 circulation; and presented 
at colleges and major conferences. 

Sculpture in the Environment, Inc. 

60 Greene Street 

New York, NY 10012 

Contact: Alison Sky, Vice President, 212/226-8345 

$10,000 / FY 1972 

Use of rooftop space for public and semipublic activ- 
ities — cultural and/or recreational — was studied. Focus 
of the team of investigators was legal regulation, low- 
cost design, construction and equipment solutions. 

Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art 
Cooper Square 
New York, NY 10003 

Contact: George Sadek, Dean, School of Art and Archi- 
tecture, 212/254-6300 
$45,150 / FY 1973 



54 

Research stressing the esthetic factor in surface-mine 
rehabilitation included inspection, documentation, and 
assessment of already reclaimed sites in Appalachia. 
"A primary target is a land form taxonomy and syntax so 
precisely defined as to be computer-programmable." A 
report, articles, a collection of graphics and scale 
models, and computer-graphic programs were planned. 

University of Massachusetts Institute for Man and 

Environment 
Amherst, MA 01001 

Contact: Ervin H. Zube, 415/545-0648 
$15,540 / FY 1975 

The role of "city edges" between low- and middle-income 
housing in communities with scattered-site housing was 
studied. Contemporary alternatives to the railroad track, 
a traditonal divider, were studied. Examples: open 
spaces, streams, major arteries, shopping and service 
streets. The goal: edges which are conductive to in- 
creasing both social interaction and the feeling of 
security in residentially desegregating areas. 

University of North Carolina 

Chapel Hill, NC 27514 

Contact: Sidney Conn, Center for Urban and Regional 

Studies, 519/933-5204 
$40,000 / FY 1974 

Extensive research into the historical development of 
regional land-use planning in Utah, and its impact on 
the American West, was funded. A slide presentation and 
illustrated publication were planned by the grantee. 

James D. Webster 
161 East 3rd Avenue 
Salt Lake City, UT 84103 
$5,450 / FY 1975 

An investigation of the development of American landscape 
was planned under this grant. The study was to look at 
the "historical, cultural, economic, and technological 
forces which have created the form of the American land- 
scape." A publication describing the findings was to be 
prepared. 

Robert Fraser 

Landscape Architecture Program 

College of Architecture 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 

Blacksburg, VA 24061 

S9,550 / FY 1976 

A study of the critical elements in determining the via- 
bility of downtown areas of small cities was funded. The 
focus of the project was to be on "the aesthetic and 
spacial relationships which form the focal point of the 
downtown. 

Thomas J. Lando 
772 Grandon Avenue 
Bexley, OH 43209 
$4,000 / FY 1976 



55 

An evaluation of common problems and planning alternatives 
for resource towns in Wyoming was the aim of this project. 
This study was to investigate the economic development of 
this historic frontier region of single-function, rapid- 
growth towns; to evaluate the scenic qualities of the 
environment; and to assess public reaction to the landscape. 

Heather E. McCartney 
2662 Taliesin Drive 
Kalamazoo, MI 49008 
$5,000 / FY 1976 

A handbook for designers on fountains and waterworks was 
funded under this grant. The publication was to include 
dimensional drawings and photographs of successful 
fountains in the United States and abroad as well as 
original research on forms and materials for use in 
designing fountains. 

Charles W. Moore 
230 Amalfi Drive 
Santa Monica, CA 90402 
$9,700 / FY 1976 

Preparation of a book on structure in nature as the basis 
for an approach to design was the focus of this grant. 

Peter J. Pearce 
3838 Carpenter Avenue 
Studio City, CA 91604 
$7,500 / FY 1976 

Continuation of earlier studies on environmental design 
issues in a nine-county region of Virginia was supported 
by this grant. These studies were to lead to development 
of improved environmental design standards and principles 
in existing political, social, and economic processes. 
Results of these studies were to be distributed through 
leaflets, manuals, slide shows, and other print and news 
media. 

Piedmont Environmental Council 

28C Main Street 

Warren ton, VA 2 218 6 

Contact: W. P. Dinsmoor White, Executive Director, 

703/347-2334 
$20,000 / FY 1976 

Design standards for the siting of mobile and modular 
housing developments in rural Pennsylvania were developed 
by the College of Arts and Architecture at Pennsylvania 
State University. Grantee anticipated that the iden- 
tified design approaches would have direct application 
to community design and planning, zoning, and subdivision 
regulations . 

The Pennsylvania State University 
College of Arts and Architecture 
1140 Arts Building 
University Park, PA 16802 

Contact: David L. Young, Project Director and Head, 
Department of Landscape Architecture, 814/865-9511 
$15,000 / FY 1977 



56 

A report on special requirements for planning and design 
in the Far North was prepared by the Institute of Social, 
Economic and Government Research at the University of 
Alaska. The study report was to synthesize knowledge 
about design requirements for work, residential and 
recreational environments; and to serve as a guide to 
Arctic planning and construction. 

University of Alaska 

Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research 

Fairbanks, AK 99701 

$20,000 / FY 1977 



Index 57 



Alaska 

State of Alaska 
15,000/78 

University of Alaska 
20,000/77 



Arizona 

Cosanti Foundation 
3,000/78 



Arkansas 

State of Arkansas 
30,000/78 



California 

California Tomorrow 

27,660/75 

Chinatown Neighborhood Improvement Resource Centter 

15,000/78 

City of Pasadena 

50,000/77 

City of Sebastopol 

5,000/74 

County of San Mateo 

20,815/78 

The East Los Angeles Community Union 

38,610/76 

Craig Ellwood 

10,000/73 

Ronald C. Filson 

7,000/76 

Richard A. Gutierrez 

10,000/76 

William H. Liskamm 

9,500/74 

Charles W. Moore 

9,700/76 

Robin C. Moore 

9,640/76 

Judith Munk 

10,000/74 

Peter J. Pearce 

7,500/76 

San Francisco Planning and Urban Renewal 

Association 
9,300/75 

Sierra Club Foundation 
40,000/73 

Sherwood B. Stockwell 
4,500/71 

The Trust for Public Land, Inc. 
15,000/78 

University of California-Berkeley 
22,890/78 

University of Southern California 
30,000/69 
Paul T. F. Wang 
7,300/74 

Colorado 

Animas Regional Planning Commission 

3,149/77 

City of Leadville 

20,000/78 

Historic Denver, Inc. 

50,000/74 

South Platte River Greenway Foundation, Inc. 

1,350/78 



58 

Delaware 

City of Wilmington 
29 30,000/77 
23 15,000/78 

Delaware State Arts Council 
31 13,200/72 



District of Columbia 

America the Beautiful Fund 

44 12,500/78 

American Institute of Architects Foundation, Inc. 
47 110,000/76 

The Conservation Foundation 
14 15,000/77 

District of Columbia 
17 50,000/74 
20 50,000/76 

District of Columbia Bicentennial Commission 

16 50,000/74 

District of Columbia Public Library 

17 42,700/74 

Donald William Evans 
31 4,900/71 

J. P. Chadwick Floyd 

45 10,000/74 

Lois G. Jackson 
26 5.000/74 

Joseph R. Passonneau 
51 17,500/78 

William K. Reilly 
53 5,000/72 



Florida 

Arts Council of Tampa 
33 11,790/76 

Center for Design Planning 
18 42,960/76 

Environmental Education, Inc. 
35 2,849/78 

Metropolitan Dade County 
26 15,000/74 



Georgia 

Atlanta Great Park Planning, Inc. 
22 10,000/78 

City of Decatur 
27 12,500/76 

City of Gainesville 
25 19,000/74 

James R. Cothran 
25 2,000/70 

Michael A. Kreski 
17 2,000/74 



Hawaii 

Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts 
47 20,000/75 

Illinois 

City of Aurora 
8 42,000/74 

City of Chicago 
8 40,000/74 

Lake Michigan Region Planning Council 
39 10,000/67 

The Open Lands Project 
35 13,000/77 

Village of London Mills 
13 900/75 



59 



Indiana 

City of Bloomington 

7,500/74 

City of Terre Haute 

9,000/77 

Raymond L. Enfield 

10,000/74 



Iowa 

Davenport Levee Improvement Commission 

18,750/74 

State of Iowa 

16,765/77 



Kansas 

University of Kansas 
2,968/76 



Kentucky 

Blue Grass Land and Nature Trust 

1,000/78 

City of Louisville 

47,000/76 

City of Morganfield 

3,000/74 

University of Kentucky Research Foundation 

30,000/69 

Louisiana 

City of New Orleans 
40,000/73 
10,000/76 
40,860/77 
Jack R. Cosner 
10,000/74 

Lafayette Natural History Museum and Planetarium 
Association, Inc. 



10,000/76 

Tulane University 

30,000/69 



Maine 

City of Eastport 

10,000/78 

City of Portland 

39,645/73 

State of Maine 

25,000/75 



Maryland 

City of Baltimore 

25,000/74 

40,000/74 

City of Greenbelt 

8,875/74 

Rurik F. Ekstrom 

8,875/74 

Historic Annapolis, Inc. 

9,566/75 

Stronghold, Inc. 

16,000/74 



60 



Massachusetts 



Boston Redevelopment Authority 
45 50,000/74 
9 10,000/76 

Boston 200 Corporation 

31 35,000/74 

Cambridge Arts Council Fund 
38 20,000/78 

City of Lowell 
9 30,330/74 
14 25,000/78 

City of Salem 

36 15,000/77 

Fund for Preservation of Wildlife and Natural Areas 

44 20,000/78 

John F. Furlong 

45 4,600/70 
Historic Salem, Inc. 

50 9,775/78 

Roy B. Mann 

48 8,000/76 

Massachusetts Audubon Society 

49 10,000/77 

The Museum of Afro-American History 

30 14,200/78 

Glenn E. Sweitzer 

37 11,000/74 
Richard Tatlock 

40 5,000/70 

University of Massachusetts Institute for 
Man and Environment 

54 15,540/75 

The Vineyard Open Land Foundation 

33 14,750/75 
Vision, Inc. 

43 15,000/75 

Worcester Cooperative Council, Inc. 
21 25,000/76 

Michigan 

Ann Arbor Tomorrow 
18 10,000/76 

City of Marquette 

32 3,844/74 

Heather E. McCartney 

55 5,000/76 

Minnesota 

City of Duluth 
21 22,440/77 

City of St. Cloud 
28 29,980/77 

University of Minnesota 
52 7,710/78 

Missouri 

City of St. Louis 

34 11,500/77 

Montana 

Bozeman City-County Planning Board 

31 9,475/74 



61 



New Hampshire 

Town of Chester 
20 500/76 

Town of Colebrook 
28 5,000/76 

Town of Milford 
30 3,100/77 



New Jersey 

City of Jersey City 
19 6,530/76 

City of Trenton 
32 31,430/74 

Great Falls Development, Inc. 
9 11,410/75 

Joyce Haney 
40 9,750/73 

New Jersey Conservation Foundation 
23 18,630/78 

Tocks Island Regional Advisory Council 
39 10,000/67 



New Mexico 

City of Albuqerque 
7 40,000/73 
18 30,000/76 

City of Santa Fe 
12 21,492/74 



New York 

Administration and Management Research Corporation 
of New York City, Inc. 
49 12,220/77 

Associated Colleges of the Mid-Hudson Area 

34 7,500/77 
George R. Beggs 

27 8,610/76 

Bronx River Restoration Project, Inc. 

35 18,000/76 

• City of Saratoga Springs 
19 10,000/76 

City of Yonkers 
23 15,000/76 

City Planning Department 
47 20,000/76 

Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art 
53 45,150/73 

Downtown Brooklyn Development Association, Inc. 
37 18,000/75 

Elaine Summers Experiemental Intermedia Foundation 
37 10,000/75 

Institute for Environmental Action, Inc. 
46 15,000/74 
27 10,000/75 
27 23,000/76 
51 5,000/78 

Institute of Human Relations of the American Jewish 
Committee 
34 20,000/76 

Municipal Art Society 
49 10,000/77 

New York Botanical Garden 
37 16,500/75 



62 





The Parks Council 


33 


25,000/74 




Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 


29 


5,000/77 


29 


10,000/77 


23 


5,000/78 


51 


15,000/78 




Queens Council on the Arts 


36 


10,000/72 


36 


20,000/73 




Research Foundation of the City University o*f 




New York 


52 


24,020/78 




Frank Sanchis 


33 


4,000/74 




Sculpture in the Environment, Inc. 


53 


10,000/72 




John W. Seddon, Jr. 


53 


5,000/70 




Society of the Advancement of the Visual Environment 


20 


6,220/76 




Town of Colonie 


43 


16,400/76 




James H. Tyner 


25 


7,100/71 




Village of Ossining 


30 


25,000/77 




Wave Hill, Inc. 


20 


20,000/76 



North. Carolina 

City-County Planning Board of Forsyth County 
and Winston-Salem 
21 24,190/77 

City of Wilmington 

13 17,300/77 

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State 
University 
51 15,000/78 

University of North Carolina 
54 40,000/74 

Ohio 

William A. Brenner 

15 5,000/74 

City of Columbus 
40 40,000/74 
27 25,000/76 

City of Upper Arlington 
38 3,625/76 

Cleveland Area Arts Council 
47 5,000/76 

Thomas J. Lando 
54 4,000/76 

Rapid Recovery, Inc. 
51 10,000/78 

Pennsylvania 

City of Philadelphia 

16 50,000/74 

City of Reading 
15 21,045/73 

City of York 

14 12,100/77 
Educational Futures, Inc. 

49 32,100/77 

50 15,810/78 
50 22,060/78 



63 



Dale R. Fox 

25 6,000/74 

French and Pickering Creeks Conservation Trust, Inc, 
45 14,000/75 

The Pennsylvania State University 
55 15,000/77 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 
45 10,000/70 

Pittsburgh Architects Workshop 

35 5,970/78 

Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation 
22 9,800/77 
29 39,400/77 

Puerto Rico 

Youth Action Administration 

9 25,000/75 

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 

41 40,000/74 

Rhode Island 

Gloria Root 
17 10,000/74 

Rhode Island School of Design 

26 50,000/74 
Friedrich St. Florian 

7 10,000/72 

South Carolina 

Camden Historical Commission 
32 5,750/74 

City of Spartanburg 
38 5,000/76 

South Carolina Arts Commission 

36 15,405/74 

Tennessee 

City of Memphis 
28 25,000/77 

Texas 

Citizens for a Better Environment, Inc. 
40 25,000/74 

Community Design Center of Dallas, Inc. 
34 5,000/76 

John Andrew Gallery 
25 10,000/74 

Galveston Historical Foundation, Inc. 
12 42,000/74 

Texas A & M University 

42 20,521/75 
University of Texas 

8 40,000/73 

49 6,000/77 

Utah 

Ogden City Corporation 
48 5,910/76 

James D. Webster 
54 5,450/75 

Vermont 

City of Burlington 

10 20,000/76 

27 50,000/76 



64 

Virginia 

City of Portsmouth 
28 10,820/77 

Gary O. Robinette 

53 4,800/70 
Robert Fraser 

54 9,550/76 

National Recreation and Park Association 
15 15,000/72 

Piedmont Environmental Council 
46 41,000/74 

55 20,000/76 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 
50 9,990/77 

The Waterford Foundation 

13 10,000/74 

Washington 

City of Seattle 
32 20,000/74 
46 10,000/75 

City of Tacoma 
10 32,500/76 

Oysterville Restoration Foundation 

14 4,500/78 

West Virginia 

City of Huntington 
36 34,735/74 

Wisconsin 

University of Wisconsin 
24 25,000/78 

Village of Williams Bay 
10 4,000/77